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Published on November 26, 2007

Author: Jacqueline

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COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA:  COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Nedka Ivanova Plamen Mishev Antoaneta Vasileva FAO TCP/RER/2901 BSEC Trade Facilitation Project COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA 1997 reform:  1997 reform Introduction of currency board Reform in financial sector and tight financial discipline on the state budget expenditures Speeding up privatisation Further liberalisation of trade and prices COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA GDP development:  GDP development COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA GDP structure:  GDP structure COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Unemployment dynamics:  Unemployment dynamics COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Employment structure:  Employment structure COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Income and consumption:  Income and consumption Nominal increase in income 1997 – 100 2002 – 215 Increase in consumption 1997 – 100 2002 meat 131.2 meat products 134.6 eggs 134.6 fruits and veg. 135.5 COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Importance of agriculture:  Importance of agriculture COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Changes in ag. sector – adverse price developments:  Changes in ag. sector – adverse price developments COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Results:  Results Decreased input consumption - extensive and primitive agriculture Decreased yields and productivity Problems in supplying processing sector Lower quantities for export COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Land reform and liquidation of coops:  Land reform and liquidation of coops Fragmented land ownership structure Dual structure of production units 99% of farm numbers – 20% of ag. Land 1% or 5400 farms - 80% of ag. land COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Land reform results:  Land reform results Strong subsistence farming Products as fruits and vegetables, mlk etc. produced on small farms in small ungraded lots Problems in supplying food processing Lower quantities and quality problems for export COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Agro-food trade importance:  Agro-food trade importance 11-7% of overall trade turnover, but declining 10-12% in export 6-8% in import Supports the total trade balance and current account Stimulate production developments and quality improvement COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Still net exporter but …:  Still net exporter but … Bulgaria remained net exporter of agricultural and food products but … COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Impediments to export:  Impediments to export Decline in production Russian crisis Crisis in Kosovo Low advertising and promotion activity COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Reasons behind the import developments:  Reasons behind the import developments Increased exchange rate leva per USD Low income Reallocation of income on the account of food expenditures COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Composition of export:  Composition of export Crops are more important 80% crop products 20% livestock products COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Composition of import:  Composition of import COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Unstable export structure:  Unstable export structure COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Concessions and problems in reallocation :  Concessions and problems in reallocation COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Europe Association Agreement Lower tariff quotas and reduction in tariffs Gradual enlargement of scope of products Completely liberal trade with non-sensitive products Higher quality requirements Small ungraded lots low quota fill Low promotion activity More stable import structure Increased import from EU:  More stable import structure Increased import from EU COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Policy priorities:  Policy priorities Efficient management of land and market structure developments Improving competitiveness Preparation for EU accession and introduction of CAP elements Sustainable developments in rural areas Environment friendly management COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Trade relations:  Trade relations Europe Association Agreements (1993) Free Trade Agreement with EFTA states (1993) Joining CEFTA (1998) Bilateral Trade Agreements with Turkey, Macedonia, Lithuania, Estonia, Israel, Croatia, Latvia, Albania Membership in WTO (1996) COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Complying with WTO commitments:  Complying with WTO commitments TSE negative or slightly positive, much below allowed level No export subsidies or Safeguard measures Applied tariffs below bounds and not restrictive Tariffs reduction over the period COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Price and trade policy:  Price and trade policy Initially restrictive Minimum and projected prices Bans and export taxes Gradually liberalised since mid 1997 Completely liberal by the end of the period Preferential treatment only under bilateral agreements COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Recommendations:  Recommendations Speeding up of structural reform Adoption of elements of CAP inc. export subsidies Establishment of marketing board Government support for promotion campaign (wine and tobacco) COUNTRY REVIEW: BULGARIA Review of Bulgarian legislation and regulations governing the import / export and domestic trade regime and assessment of their practical application:  Review of Bulgarian legislation and regulations governing the import / export and domestic trade regime and assessment of their practical application FAO TCP/RER/2901 BSEC Trade Facilitation Project 1.01.2007:  1.01.2007 … is the expected date for accession of the Republic of Bulgaria to the European community 31.12.2004 … is the starting date for the full implementation of the European Community law in Republic of Bulgaria National Program for Adoption of the Acquis Communautaire (NPAA) General regulations applicable to domestic trade:  General regulations applicable to domestic trade Commercial Code Law on Cooperatives Law on the trademarks and geographic indications Competition Protection Act Law on Consumer Protection and Trade Rules Legal Framework for Agricultural and Food Trade:  Legal Framework for Agricultural and Food Trade Food Act Law for Agricultural Land Ownership and Land Lease Farmers Support Act Law on veterinary activity Law on Seeds and Planting Material Bulgarian Foreign Trade Regulations:  Bulgarian Foreign Trade Regulations Integrated Customs Tariff 2003 Council of Ministers Decree No.233/ 08.11.2000, last amended SG 110/ 22.11.2002) Agreement of Marrakech (WTO) concerning export subsidies and levies Decree No. 300 (1996) concerning the Safeguard Measures Bulgarian Foreign Trade Regime:  Bulgarian Foreign Trade Regime Liberal and simplified (“first come, first served”) No quantitative restrictions or NTB on imports No export taxes or export refunds No national treatment regulations Low transaction cost (transparency in licensing) Border protection bellow the WTO commitments Bulgarian Foreign Trade Regime:  Bulgarian Foreign Trade Regime Relatively high tariff protection applies to imports of livestock and meats (fresh and frozen), several diary products, tomatoes and some fruits (seasonally), chocolate and bakers’ wares, alcoholic beverages and tobacco Bulgaria also applies autonomous tariff rates for a number of goods (www.customs.government.bg) Agricultural Trade Regulations :  Agricultural Trade Regulations Ban on exports of burned timber and lumber Automatic licensing for export of several kind of timber Permits are required for import, export and re-export of mushrooms, mussels, snails, frogs, and game animals Product / market-specific regulations - cereals:  Product / market-specific regulations - cereals Grain Storage and Trade Act Ordinance on the Terms and Procedures for Registration of Traders in Grain Ordinance on Licensing and Control of the Public Grain Warehouses and Granaries. Product / market-specific regulations – livestock and meat:  Product / market-specific regulations – livestock and meat Animal Breeding Act. Decree of the CM 67/25.03.1998 on animal identification and animal holding registration: Nationwide tracability system fully compatible with the EU ANIMO. Ordinance No 41 on the identification and registration of animals of the caprine and ovine species. ! The absence of market price monitoring system is impeding the intervention buy-out. ! The lack of carcass grading system for bovine and porcine species jeopardizes the establishment of private storage for meat. Product / market-specific regulations – fruits & vegetables:  Product / market-specific regulations – fruits & vegetables Ordinance N. 33 of 17 December 1998 on quality inspection, purchasing and conformity checks on fresh fruit and vegetables: Quality standards for 26 vegetables and 19 products of fruits Labelling criteria Procedures for domestic marketing of the products Provisions related to imports & exports Product / market-specific regulations – beverages:  Product / market-specific regulations – beverages Wine and Spirit Drinks Act. licensing of traders and registration of producers. Ordinance for the requirements concerning drinks from fruits (product marks and labelling). Ordinance for the requirements concerning jams, marmalades, jelly made from fruits etc. Ordinance for the requirements concerning dietary foods for special medical purposes. Importers submit sample of the product label before marketing. Ordinance No.45 /SG 110/19.12.1995, last amended SG 70/19.07.2002 for the hygienic standards and requirements concerning the food additives. Product / market-specific regulations – organic products and GMO:  Product / market-specific regulations – organic products and GMO 1.Ordinance No 22/04.07.2001 on organic production of plants, plant products and foodstuffs of plant origin and indications referring thereto on them, based on the Plant Protection Act; 2.Ordinance No 35/30.08.2001 on organic production of livestock, livestock products and foodstuffs of animal origin and indications referring thereto on them. - importers ensure tracability of the origin, nature and quantity of every lot; - rules for imports, organic production labelling, advertising and commercial documents. Practical application of the trade-related regulations in Bulgaria - overview:  Practical application of the trade-related regulations in Bulgaria - overview in 2002 from 362 licensing and approval regulatory regimes in Bulgaria 74 were eliminated 118 were simplified 2 screenings of legislation for compliance with principles for Free Movement of Goods and Services Draft Law limiting the administrative regulations and control on the economic activities was adopted: 36 economic activities only could be regulated; Regulatory regimes could only be introduced by law Practical application of the trade-related regulations in Bulgaria:  Practical application of the trade-related regulations in Bulgaria Survey carried out with representatives of farmers and traders with agricultural products and foods Regulations and administrative practice affecting pricing of inputs, outputs and public services (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, storage, machinery) to agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fisheries VAT system, policy uncertainty and inconsistent implementing regulations Land/real estate property rights; Licensing of business activities, Standards, certificates and documentary requirements, Inspections related to imports and domestic trade; Food safety and animal welfare regulations; Arbitrary implementation of regulations and administrative practice Inefficient law enforcement and judicial procedures Major sector-specific restrictions perceived by agro-businesses :  Major sector-specific restrictions perceived by agro-businesses Discrimination in state procurement with grains Permits for warehouses & registration of grain traders Disproportionate sanctions & controls in plant protection Registration of fertilizers, soil additives and food substrates to be marketed Licensing for commercial fishing Government control & licensing of trade with spirits & wine Obligatory certification and national requirements Import / Export Licensing for forest products and species Mandatory “producer” and “transportation” marks for timber HACCP implementation by food operators: state of play and future :  HACCP implementation by food operators: state of play and future Law for Veterinary Activity and the Food Act ....traders can introduce and make use of a HACCP systems in order to produce safe foods, under the supervision of the State Sanitary Service and the Veterinary and Sanitary Service. .. contamination of foods within the operating processing facility .. production process or trade activities are subject to systematic state control or, in case of doubt, inspections without notification HACCP is mandatory for middle- and high capacity operating plants. HACCP-related government control covers the use of laboratories for hygiene control and foodstuff analysis (National Council of food safety) Slide44:  Thank you!

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