Published on February 27, 2014
Building Envelopes and Thermal Mass Walls Presented by: Andy Turner VP Sales and Marketing Nuform Building Technologies Inc Leed AP
History of Nuform Building Technologies Founded in 1992 Royal Building Systems Technologies, LTD Provides the world with leading edge building systems and technologies 2007-Royal Building SystemsTechnologies became Nuform Building Technologies New Names-Same Great Products
Introduction Design, Engineering and Specification Assistance Constructability Assistance Budgeting Assistance Sample Assistance Systems Testing LEED Analysis Thermal Analyses Construction Comparisons
Introduction Construction Comparison Site Cast Precast Conventional Poured In Place Metal Panel Conform
AIA / CES Program Purpose This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
Learning Objectives Participants will be able to: Utilize the architectural aspects of Concrete Wall Panels Understand how to insulate a concrete wall Understand the benefits of a high mass wall Understand the benefits of insulated concrete walls in relation to energy efficiency Understand overall panel thermal, fire resistance, and moisture ,mold and pest prevention properties Leed
Program Agenda Introduction to Envelopes Benefits of Envelope Construction Speed of Construction Limited Site Disturbance Energy Efficiency Moisture Management Wall Physical Performance R-Values Sustainability Durability
Introduction Owner Benefits Benefits to Owners: Speed of Construction Limited Site Disturbance Attractive Appearance Energy Efficiency (R-30+) Increased Daylighting Long Clear Spans 150 MPH + Low Maintenance Sound Transmission (STC 58) Moisture Management Fire Endurance (4-HR)
Comparative Construction Cycle Analysis Inlaid Brick Architectural Concrete Wall= Hand-laid Brick/Block Cavity Wall Facility Architect Facility CM/Contractor Concrete Wall Load Bearing Panels with Insulation, Conduit & Brick Architect CM/Contractor CMU Block Scaffolding Up & Down Conduit Grout & Rebar Roof Roof Damproofing Insulation Brick Scaffolding Up & Down Cleanup
Introduction Limited Site Disturbance - Panelization Panelization: Modular Size Repetition
Introduction Limited Site Disturbance - Panelization
Introduction Limited Site Disturbance – Panelization
Introduction Texture Options – Color, Form, and Texture TEXTURE Multiple Textures Add Interest Multiple Textures Add A very economical way to enrich Interest the appearance of your school’s A very economical way to enrich its appearance precast exterior is to vary the of the facility’s exterior is to vary its texture. texture. Thin Brick and Stone Sandblasting Concrete Sprayed Siding and Hard Plank Steel Acid Etching PVC Retarding (Exposed Aggregate)
Introduction Retail Nordstrom Irvine, CA
Introduction Corporate & Office
Introduction Barrier Walls
Introduction Housing Residential: Dormitories Hotels Health Care Multi-Residence Single-Family Energy Efficient Homes
Introduction Controlled Environments
Introduction Health Care
Introduction Health Care Cook County Hospital Chicago, IL
Introduction Educational – Interior Walls Walls are finished…..
Introduction Educational – Interior Walls
Introduction Educational – Interior Walls Minimal maintenance for 20 years or longer . . . • Interior exposed concrete surface needs only periodic repainting • Exterior wall surface totally maintenance free, except for caulking every 20 years +/ • If thin brick is used, no need to tuck point concrete mortar joints
Types of Concrete Wall Panels Solid Concrete Wall Panels = Question: Did you know that 7” of load- bearing structural concrete has approximately the same R-Value as a single panel of glass…R-1.4 ! Insulation IS Important !
Types of Concrete Wall Panels Insulating Options? Insulation Position is critical: Interior: Insulation separates you from the mass effect Exterior: Outside of the bulk mass of the wall system.
Effective R-Value Thermal Efficiency in a Wall Panel The ability of concrete to store energy and dampen the effect of temperature change on heating and cooling systems is know as the “Thermal Mass Effect.” Due to the mass effect of insulated precast walls, the performance R-value of the high performance wall system can be two to three times greater than that of the material R-value, resulting in energy cost savings up to or exceeding 50%. High Mass Building Conventional Insulated Building
ASHRAE 90.1-1989 Building Envelope Performance Study ASHRAE 90.1-1989 Performance Analysis APPROVED Calculations will show how what R-Value a Integrally Insulated High Mass Wall Panel will perform at.
Non-Composite Sandwich Wall Panels Connection Devices Pin Connector: Polypropylene Nylon No Thermal Transfer Molded Plastics No Quality Control Pullout Capacity = 1100 lbs. Shear Strength = 380 lbs. Pullout Capacity = 1100 lbs. Shear Strength = 500 lbs.
Sandwich Wall Panels Connection Devices Insignificant Pull Out & Shear Capacity of Connectors
Composite Sandwich Wall Panels
Composite Sandwich Wall Panels Thermally Inefficient Connection Devices Thermographic image showing thermal bridging.
Conform Energy Efficient Wall Panels Thermally Efficient Thermo graphic image shows thermal efficiency: Edge to Edge Insulation
Integral Insulation Expanded Polystyrene - EPS – “BEAD BOARD” ASTM C578 Standard Specification for Preformed Cellular Polystyrene Thermal Insulation - EPS Type XI I VIII II IX Density min, pcf 0.7 0.9 1.15 1.35 1.8 R-Value/inch @ 75 F 3.1 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 Compressive strength min, psi 5 10 13 15 25 WVP, max perm for 1” 5 5 3.5 3.5 2 Water Absorption max., % by vol. 4 4 3 3 2
Integral Insulation Polyisocyanurate – POLY ISO Polyisocyanurate: Closed Cell Variety of Facers. R-5.6 to R-6.5
Integral Insulation Polyisocyanurate – POLY ISO ASTM C1289 Standard Specification for Faced Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation Board Type Class Facer R-Value/inch @ 75 F Compressive strength min, psi WVP, max perm for 1” Water Absorption max, % / vol Isocast R I I II II triplex aluminum poly facer Foil Felt or Glass Fiber Mat 6.5 6.5 5.6 25 25 16 <.03 <.03 1 0.05 0.05 1.50
Integral Insulation Extruded Polystyrene – XPS Extruded Polystyrene: Closed cell structure. Integral high density skin and core. Typical R-values of R5.0 to R5.6 per inch. Magnified Cross Section
Insulation ASTM C578 Standard Specification for Preformed Cellular Polystyrene Thermal Insulation - XPS TYPE X IV VI VII V Density, min., pcf 1.35 1.60 1.80 2.20 3.00 R-Value/inch @ 75 F 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 15 25 40 60 100 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Compressive Strength, min., psi WVP, max., perm for 1.5” Water Absorption, max., % by vol.
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Moisture Management The problems associated with moisture and its affects on building components are well known, and costly to repair. Most Insurers have stopped coverage for these incidents leaving owners no other avenue for compensation but the court system. Bottom Line: No Moisture Means No Mold or Mildew
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Moisture Management In general, molds demand a favorable combination of the following conditions to germinate, sporulate, and grow: Fungal spores settling on the surface Oxygen availability Optimal temperatures between 40-70 degrees F Nutrient availability (wood, paper, cellulose based materials) Moisture (liquid or relative humidity above 70%) The first four conditions are met in almost every building. The key remaining factor is moisture, which may be controlled by adhering to sound construction practices discussed in this presentation. Bottom Line: No Moisture Means No Mold or Mildew
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Moisture Vapor Drive Warm Outside Cold Inside In a Hot/Mixed Climate: Diffusion from the exterior side of the wall is also common. In spring, summer, and fall, wind driven rain can be absorbed in the exterior concrete and stored. Outside-In Vapor Drive Insulation is critical in preventing this moisture vapor drive: Concrete can’t Exterior Paints can’t After the rain, as the sun heats up the concrete wythe, the moisture turns to vapor and is driven through the wall Moisture will always diffuse, especially if the perm rating is greater than 1.0
Moisture Vapor Drive Insulation will enhance the efficiency of the entire wall system. Cold Inside Air PVC Encompassed Insulation and Concrete form Outside-In Vapor Drive Exfiltration
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Moisture Vapor Drive What Is Vapor Diffusion? The Process by which water vapor migrates through a wall system and it’s components such as gypsum, concrete, insulation and paint. Each components of the wall system has a perm rating The International Building Code says that a material with a perm rating of 1.0 or less is a vapor retarder. Examples of the average perm rating for different wall components… Gypsum 12 - 50 perms Plastic Sheet Barriers (2-10 mil) .16 – .03 perms Rigid Insulation 5.8 – .03 perms Concrete 3.2 perms PVC 0 perms
Moisture Vapor Drive Photograph showing thermal bridging and moisture migration.
Moisture Vapor Drive Removing wallpaper, mold and mildew is prevalent throughout the entire wall.
Energy Efficiency calate. ncern. 36% of ALL energy consumed in the U.S. is consumed by buildings Natural gas prices are expected to increase from 30% to 70% compared to one year ago “Energy efficient building shell is one that integrates and optimizes insulation levels, glazing, shading, thermal mass, air leakage control, and light-colored exterior surfaces” (Sustainable Building Industry Council - High Performance School Buildings 2005 Second Edition)
Effective R-Value Thermal Loss Through Wall Panel ASHRAE 90.1 recognizes thermal short circuits and applies a correction factor to account for the higher heat loss through highly conductive steel studs. Effective R-value = R-value x Correction Factor
Effective R-Value What R-Value are you Purchasing? Let’s look at the assembly of the Steel Stud / Brick Wall: 6” 20 GA S.S. @ 24” o.c., R-19 Batt + ½” Gyp. Component Int air film Gypsum Vapor retarder R19 batt Gypsum Air space Brick Ext.air film Wall Effective R-Value: R-value 0.68 0.45 0.01 8.60 0.45 0.60 0.80 0.17 11.76 INTERIOR AIR FILM GYPSUM BOARD STEEL STUD R-19 BATT INSULATION EXTERIOR GYPSUM AIR SPACE MASONRY EXTERIOR AIR FILM The ASHRAE “PARALLEL PATH METHOD” was used to calculate the effective thermal performance for the metal frame wall construction. The correction factors from ASHRAE Standard 90.1, 1989 User’s Manual were used to assign reduced thermal resistance values for the insulated stud cavity.
Effective R-Value Thermal Loss Through Wall Panels Solid Concrete Zones Metal Thermal Bridges Thermal Short Circuits
Effective R-Value Thermal Loss Through Wall Panel The thermal conductivity of steel & solid concrete sections account for significant thermal losses! Up to 60% thermal loss !!
Effective R-Value Thermal Loss Through Wall Panel Measurements of thermal loss in sandwich panels: Panel Description Material R-Value1 Test R-Value Percent Loss Panel with Only Steel Ties Panel with Only Solid Concrete Panel with Solid Concrete & Steel Ties 10.48 7.55 -27.96% 10.48 5.77 -44.94% 10.48 4.55 -56.58% 1. Value obtained summing R-values for concrete & insulation layers, no air films included. Note: All 3-2-3 panels made with extruded polystyrene. Source: “Summary of Thermal Tests of Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls U.S.Dept. of Energy 1998-1999.” Composite Technologies Corp., IA, 1999.
Effective R-Value Thermal Efficiency in a Wall Panel Measurements of thermal loss in sandwich panels: Panel Description Material R-Value1 Test R-Value Percent Loss Panel with only steel ties 10.48 7.55 27.96% Panel with only solid concrete 10.48 5.77 44.94% Panel with solid concrete & steel ties 10.48 4.55 56.58% Conform Wall Panel 10.48 10.57 -0.86% 1. Value obtained summing R-values for concrete & insulation layers, no air films included. Note: All 3-2-3 panels made with extruded polystyrene. Source: “Summary of Thermal Tests of Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls U.S.Dept. of Energy 1998-1999.” Composite Technologies Corp., IA, 1999.
Effective R-Value Thermal Loss Through Wall Panel Thermographic image showing thermal bridging.
Thermal Efficiency Energy Savings This school is constructed with conventional brick / masonry construction. It took 8½ months to construct. This school is actually 4,000 sq.ft. larger but was constructed with an integrally insulated sandwich wall panel. Construction time was only 5½ months! School Comparison Electrical Cost Natural Gas Cost Traditional School $118.89 per day $100.78 per day High Mass Wall $91.02 per day $65.95 per day Percent Savings 31% 52%
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Sustainable Design – LEED TM United Nations Brundtland Commission Report (1987): Defined sustainable development and urged the world to take note… “Sustainable development is that which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This Concern Gave Birth to: The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) Initiated the LEED System A nationally accepted standard for developing green buildings The LEED system currently addresses six (6) areas of construction. Projects opting to qualify for LEED Certification are graded in those 6 different categories and must accumulate at least 26 points.
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Sustainable Design – LEED TM Credit Category Points Available Sustainable Sites 14 Water Efficiency 5 Energy and Atmosphere 17 Materials and Resources 13 Indoor Environmental Quality 15 Total Core Points 64 Innovation and Design Process 5 LEED Certification Levels Certified 26-32 Pts Silver 33-38 Pts Gold 39-51 Pts Platinum 52-69 Pts Within each of the 6 credit categories are several sub-categories that create the path for scoring points
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Sustainable Design – LEED TM Sustainable Sites Credit 5.1 Credit 5.2 Credit 7.1 Site Development, Protect or Restore Habitat Site Development, Maximize Open Space Heat Island Effect, Non-Roof Points 1 1 0 Energy & Atmosphere Prereq 2 Credit 1 Minimum Energy Performance Optimize Energy Performance 15% to 60% Required 2 Materials & Resources Prereq 1 Credit 1.1 Credit 1.2 Credit 2.1 Credit 2.2 Credit 4.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 5.1 Credit 5.2 Storage and Collection of Recyclables Building Reuse, Maintain 75% of Existing Walls, Floors & Roof Building Reuse, Maintain 95% of Existing Walls, Floors & Roof Construction Waste Management, Divert 50% from Disposal Construction Waste Management, Divert 75% From Disposal Recycled Content, Use 10% (Post-Consumer + Half Pre-Consumer) Recycled Content, Use 20% (Post-Consumer + Half Pre-Consumer) Regional Materials, 10% Extracted, Processed and Manufactured Regionally Regional Materials, 20% Extracted, Processed and Manufactured Regionally Required 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Indoor Environmental Quality Credit 3.1 Construction IAQ Management Plan, During Construction 1 Innovation & Design Process Credit 1.1 Credit 1.2-1.4 Credit 2.1 Innovation in Design, Use of High Volume supplementary Cementitious Materials. Apply for other credits demonstrating exceptional performance TM LEED Accredited Professional 1 2 1 LEED Silver
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls Summary Benefits to Owners: Speed of Construction Limited Site Disturbance Attractive Appearance Energy Efficiency (R-30+) Increased Daylighting Long Clear Spans 150 MPH + Low Maintenance Sound Transmission (STC 58) Moisture Management Fire Endurance (4-HR) Seismic D Rated
Insulated Concrete Sandwich Walls AIA / CES Program Purpose American Institute of Architect Continuing Education Systems. This concludes the CES portion of the program. Credit earned during this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificate of Completion for nonAIA members is available on request.
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