Building a semantic website

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Information about Building a semantic website

Published on January 31, 2009

Author: mcjenkins

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A simple tutorial introducing methods and technologies used to build semantic websites, and why you should want to.

Build a semantic web website http://scienceforseo.blogspot.com

What is the semantic web? It is a very powerful way to access information on the web. It is a “web of data” where everything is linked in. It allows applications to “talk to each other”, reusing and sharing this data. The data is shared via a common web architecture (e.g.URI's) Relationships in the data are created by tools and some are also created manually. Thus machines can interact with data and humans can access far more accurate and useful data.

It is a very powerful way to access information on the web.

It is a “web of data” where everything is linked in.

It allows applications to “talk to each other”, reusing and sharing this data.

The data is shared via a common web architecture (e.g.URI's)

Relationships in the data are created by tools and some are also created manually.

Thus machines can interact with data and humans can access far more accurate and useful data.

How is it useful in practise? You could not only access your photos, calendar, diary and so on, but also have relevant photos appear when you look at a specific event in your calendar You could be writing a document and you could ask for other documents that you want to reference without having to look for them. You can do a search and share that data with a friend or colleague, and relevant additional information that is relevant would be available to you both.

You could not only access your photos, calendar, diary and so on, but also have relevant photos appear when you look at a specific event in your calendar

You could be writing a document and you could ask for other documents that you want to reference without having to look for them.

You can do a search and share that data with a friend or colleague, and relevant additional information that is relevant would be available to you both.

Why does this matter to my site? Without semantic mark-up, databases, ontologies and so on, your site cannot be picked up by engines like Google and others able to use semantic elements. Your site would then not get the visibility it deserves and could have. Your competitors may have prepped their site already and although you show #1 in the rankings, they are have more pulling power than you do. Mozilla are deploying a whole host of RDF tools

Without semantic mark-up, databases, ontologies and so on, your site cannot be picked up by engines like Google and others able to use semantic elements.

Your site would then not get the visibility it deserves and could have.

Your competitors may have prepped their site already and although you show #1 in the rankings, they are have more pulling power than you do.

Mozilla are deploying a whole host of RDF tools

How does it work? Instead of using hyperlinks to link documents, the SW can be linked to any 2 resources (not just one document). This is achieved using RDF, OWL, SKOS. These allow you to describe documents, resources, people, categories, anything you like, in a machine readable way. RDF also provides an XML based syntax. These are linked by URI's

Instead of using hyperlinks to link documents, the SW can be linked to any 2 resources (not just one document). This is achieved using RDF, OWL, SKOS.

These allow you to describe documents, resources, people, categories, anything you like, in a machine readable way.

RDF also provides an XML based syntax.

These are linked by URI's

Example RDF It's about Bob Dylan (from W3C schools) http://www.w3schools.com/rdf/rdf_example.asp

It's about Bob Dylan (from W3C schools)

http://www.w3schools.com/rdf/rdf_example.asp

Example OWL This the famous “Koala Bear” example - “ Wine ” is very thorough and a good tutorial though.

This the famous “Koala Bear” example - “ Wine ” is

very thorough and a good tutorial though.

Example SKOS “ Single knowledge organisation system reference” From XML.com

“ Single knowledge organisation system reference”

From XML.com

GRDDL It stands for “Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Language”. It allows RDF triples to be extracted from XML documents like XHTML which is often used as an example. GRDDL transformations can be attached to XML documents. The output of that is an RDF representation of the data and it can be queried using SPARQL (don't worry, it's covered a few slides on) There is a full example of GRDDL at W3C .

It stands for “Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Language”.

It allows RDF triples to be extracted from XML documents like XHTML which is often used as an example.

GRDDL transformations can be attached to XML documents.

The output of that is an RDF representation of the data and it can be queried using SPARQL (don't worry, it's covered a few slides on)

There is a full example of GRDDL at W3C .

RDFa It stands for “Resource Description Framework- in-attributes” and it extends XHTML. It uses attributes from XHTML to allow you to tag everything up for semantic stuff. It extracts RDF triples using a mapping method. It allows for the data to be easily visible to humans and to machines, as the HTML and RDF are self-contained (separate). Data is reusable. Non-duplicated, and each site can have its own standards. See W3C for a good primer and examples.

It stands for “Resource Description Framework- in-attributes” and it extends XHTML.

It uses attributes from XHTML to allow you to tag everything up for semantic stuff.

It extracts RDF triples using a mapping method.

It allows for the data to be easily visible to humans and to machines, as the HTML and RDF are self-contained (separate).

Data is reusable. Non-duplicated, and each site can have its own standards.

See W3C for a good primer and examples.

URI's URIs are the Nouns (Uniform Resource Identifier) HTTP is the Verbs (GET, PUT, POST) The URI as you may know is used for “mailto:”, “http:” and so on (used to be called URL). They are used to access representations of resources. URIs give RDF identifiers so statements can be made about statements.

URIs are the Nouns (Uniform Resource Identifier)

HTTP is the Verbs (GET, PUT, POST)

The URI as you may know is used for “mailto:”, “http:” and so on (used to be called URL).

They are used to access representations of resources.

URIs give RDF identifiers so statements can be made about statements.

Example URI In N-Triple format (Plain text MIME format – represents the “correct” answers for parsing RDF) <Bananas><are><yellow> In URI format (the RDF is appended): rdfuri:%3cBananas%3e%20%3are%3e%20%3cyellow%3e%20 There is a full list of official URI schemes to use here .

In N-Triple format (Plain text MIME format – represents the “correct” answers for parsing RDF)

<Bananas><are><yellow>

In URI format (the RDF is appended):

rdfuri:%3cBananas%3e%20%3are%3e%20%3cyellow%3e%20

There is a full list of official URI schemes to use here .

SPARQL It stands for “SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language” pronounced “Sparkle”. It's like an SQL language especially made for the SW. It's based on the RDF framework and uses WSDL (Web Services Description Language) It has a query language, access protocol and the RDF data model. It's basically a search engine for the SW.

It stands for “SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language” pronounced “Sparkle”.

It's like an SQL language especially made for the SW.

It's based on the RDF framework and uses WSDL (Web Services Description Language)

It has a query language, access protocol and the RDF data model.

It's basically a search engine for the SW.

so... You can retrieve data, as you would in a normal or even massive database using a relatively small application from the entire web. You can query all comments, RSS feeds, images, FOAF, everything you might want want to all at the same time. It's easy to code and very short too, even though it is very powerful

You can retrieve data, as you would in a normal or even massive database using a relatively small application from the entire web.

You can query all comments, RSS feeds, images, FOAF, everything you might want want to all at the same time.

It's easy to code and very short too, even though it is very powerful

SPARQL example This is from Wiki Musicontology – see there for more examples.

This is from Wiki Musicontology – see there for more examples.

FOAF This stands for “Friend Of A Friend”. It allows you to create a file that sites with your website. It is a machine readable social network where each profile has an individual URI. In the FOAF file you state who you are connected to, which projects, any publications you've written, anything at all. Their official site is here . Also see Libby's blog here .

This stands for “Friend Of A Friend”.

It allows you to create a file that sites with your website.

It is a machine readable social network where each profile has an individual URI.

In the FOAF file you state who you are connected to, which projects, any publications you've written, anything at all.

Their official site is here .

Also see Libby's blog here .

Example FOAF The vocab specification is here , example from xml.com

The vocab specification is here , example from xml.com

There are tools to help you Converter Tools: - TopBraid (available as Eclipse Plugin) - Put your Palm OS data into RDF - MindSwap CSV to RDF - FlickCurl – Flicker to RDF - XML.com: XML to RDF - Manchester Uni Owl syntax converter

Converter Tools:

- TopBraid (available as Eclipse Plugin)

- Put your Palm OS data into RDF

- MindSwap CSV to RDF

- FlickCurl – Flicker to RDF

- XML.com: XML to RDF

- Manchester Uni Owl syntax converter

And more... Development environments: - Protege opensource java tool - Jena Java Famework - The RDFeditor - Altova from Semanticworks - RDFe in Python - Simplistic RDF editor

Development environments:

- Protege opensource java tool

- Jena Java Famework

- The RDFeditor

- Altova from Semanticworks

- RDFe in Python

- Simplistic RDF editor

And more... RDF Generators: - KWARC RDF extractor - OpenCalais – superb - Triplify plugin for applications - Zemanta – I love it - FOAF-Visualizer – to work with FOAF - Foaf-o-matic to generate FOAF files - Ruby RDF generator – for Ruby fans

RDF Generators:

- KWARC RDF extractor

- OpenCalais – superb

- Triplify plugin for applications

- Zemanta – I love it

- FOAF-Visualizer – to work with FOAF

- Foaf-o-matic to generate FOAF files

- Ruby RDF generator – for Ruby fans

And more... Extras: - MOAT – meaning of a tag - Amalgram – good for linguists - Allegrograph RDF store - BrownSauce RDF browser - Conceptool - check your ontologies - Fact++ is an OWL reasoner - Add semantics to Excel - IBM semantic Layered Resource Platform And there are many many more...

Extras:

- MOAT – meaning of a tag

- Amalgram – good for linguists

- Allegrograph RDF store

- BrownSauce RDF browser

- Conceptool - check your ontologies

- Fact++ is an OWL reasoner

- Add semantics to Excel

- IBM semantic Layered Resource Platform

And there are many many more...

Tips To put RDF into (X)HTML use RDFa which has an XHTML 1.1 module. Use an RDF data browser to see RDF on the web such as Disco or OpenLink RDF – or a Firefox extension . PingtheSemanticWeb is a good source of RDF all ready made and so is SchemaWeb Oh and Dapper will semantify your site :)

To put RDF into (X)HTML use RDFa which has an XHTML 1.1 module.

Use an RDF data browser to see RDF on the web such as Disco or OpenLink RDF – or a Firefox extension .

PingtheSemanticWeb is a good source of RDF all ready made and so is SchemaWeb

Oh and Dapper will semantify your site :)

Links Book: “The explorer's guide to the semantic web” Book: A Semantic web guide Book: “ Semantic web for the working ontologist ” Book: “ The explorers guide to the semantic web Tim Berners-Lee – Why RDF is different to XML RDF core working group IBM: Planning a semantic website Stanford: Semantic website clustering

Book: “The explorer's guide to the semantic web”

Book: A Semantic web guide

Book: “ Semantic web for the working ontologist ”

Book: “ The explorers guide to the semantic web

Tim Berners-Lee – Why RDF is different to XML

RDF core working group

IBM: Planning a semantic website

Stanford: Semantic website clustering

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