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Published on November 16, 2007

Author: Churchill

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  This program is supported in part through a cooperative agreement with the MA Department of Public Health funded by the CDC Division of Animal Health, Biosecurity and Dairy Services BIOTERRORISM and ANIMALS Awareness and Response YOU PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE ! Slide2:  A zoonotic disease, a disease transmissible between animals and humans, introduced by a terrorist could have a devastating impact on human life, the animal community and our economy. In some diseases, clinical signs may appear in animals prior to humans. Pets in particular can act as important sentinels. Government agencies, livestock and companion animal owners and veterinarians play an important role in early detection. Recognizing those signs, responding quickly and appropriately might prevent a catastrophe. The Basic Premise Slide3:  DEFINITIONS ZOONOTIC: a disease, either bacterial, viral or parasitic, transmissible between animals and humans. BIOTERRORISM: intentional use or threatened use of a biologic agent to hurt people, create fear or disrupt society. AGROTERRORISM: the intentional or threatened release of a biologic agent to destroy or damage livestock or crops. Animals as Sentinels:  Animals as Sentinels Sentinels provide early warning Sentinels are like dogs on patrol Disease may be seen in animals before humans People, pets, livestock, wildlife overlap Canaries in the coal mines – 1916 Slide5:  WHY AGRO- TERRORISM OR BIO- TERRORISM : Make Americans aware of their vulnerabilities Create skepticism that government can protect American interests Difficult to detect release Dissemination may cover a large area Susceptible civilian populations High morbidity and mortality Possible secondary spread (contagion), domestic animal to humans, domestic animals to wildlife, human to human transmission Recognition of agent may be delayed days to weeks long incubation period / perpetrators, long gone Slide6:  A BRIEF HISTORY OF BIOTERRORISM When loaded with diseased bodies, wood-frame catapults were biological weapons. In the 14th and 15th century, with little known about disease transmission corpses were used as ammunition, intended as biological weapons. As early as 300 BC, combatants knew that if they left the decaying bodies of fallen comrades beside their enemies food and water supplies, disease would be transmitted. Slide7:  TULAREMIA Source: JAMA, 2001 ANTHRAX 80 years ago research on Anthrax began. 1979 Sverlovsk accidental release; Former Soviet Union had a large Anthrax program. 1995 Iraq acknowledged producing and weaponizing B anthracis A 2001 analysis reports that there is clear evidence of … offensive biological weapons programs in at least 13 countries. BOTULISM The Japanese during WWII dropped plague-infected fleas over populated areas of China. US and Soviet Union, during the Cold War, developed direct plague aerosolization. 60 years ago development and use of botulinum toxin as a bioweapon began. Japanese fed cultures to prisoners during the 1930’s Manchurian occupation. Aerosols were dispersed at multiple sites in downtown Tokyo and US military sites in Japan on at least 3 occasions between 1990-1995 by Aum Shrinrikyo. PLAGUE 1942 Former Soviet Union suspected of intentional tularemic exposure affecting thousands Soviet and German soldiers on the eastern European front during WWII. 70% of victims had pneumonic tularemia, evidence of an intentional release. Following WWII parallel efforts by the US and Soviet Union resulted in weaponization of F tularensis strains engineered to be resistant to antibiotics and vaccines. History of Bioterrorism Clues Suggesting Biological Agent Release:  Clues Suggesting Biological Agent Release Clustering of illness or deaths Temporally or geographically ( in time or space) Large numbers of animals and/or people Atypical symptoms Normally healthy people affected Unusual symptoms for geographic location Unusual age distribution Disease occurring outside typical season Infectious Disease Outbreak:  Time (Days) No. Affected Exposure Symptoms Seek Care Infectious Disease Outbreak Natural Routes Of Transmission:  Natural Routes Of Transmission Aerosol • coughing • sneezing Direct contact Scratches Droplet spray onto mucous membranes Indirect- ingestion, injection Contaminated food, water Vector (e.g., insect, flea bite) Factors That Promote Transmission Of Zoonoses:  Factors That Promote Transmission Of Zoonoses Poor animal health Frequent contact with domestic or wild animals Overlap with wildlife habitat Intensive livestock production Poor animal sanitation Poor personal hygiene Slide12:  Four Major Components of a Biosecurity Plan Effective management prevents or minimizes cross-contamination of infective agents or materials containing. For more information on biosecurity please call the Division of Animal Health, Biosecurity and Dairy Services at 617-626-1735 or visit our website at: www.state.ma.us/dfa. The control and prevention of disease or other contaminants in order to protect animal health and animal products, keeping our food supply safe and secure. BIOSECURITY Zoonoses Control (naturally occurring or intentionally released):  Zoonoses Control (naturally occurring or intentionally released) Age-appropriate pet selection Observe proper hygiene at petting zoos Cook food properly Control strays Avoid contact with wild or feral animals Visit and communicate with physician and veterinarian Follow guidelines for immunocompromised people Disinfect/clean up areas contaminated with animal waste: livestock, pets, wildlife, rodents Basic hygiene: wash hands; child supervision Slide14:  MA Emergency Animal Response Plan Provides for the coordination of federal, state. local, private and voluntary resources. Responds to the needs of privately owned and wild animal care before, during and following a significant natural emergency/disaster, a man-made event or other animal health emergency. The situation is: MA animal population surpasses human population. Owners are responsible for their animals’ care and housing in an emergency. Personal or business emergency plans should include taking care of animals. A significant emergency/disaster necessitates the need for a plan utilizing municipal and/or state and/or federal assistance. Assistance provided to address Disaster Animal Issues, in a declared emergency/ disaster, is a coordinated effort of local, state, federal, private and volunteer organizations. Slide15:  Participating MA & US Government Agencies MA Dept. of Agricultural Resources, Division of Animal Health, Biosecurity and Dairy Services MA Dept of Conservation and Recreation MA Dept of Mental Health MA Dept of Public Health MA Division of Environmental Management MA Division of Fisheries and Wildlife MA Division of Environmental Law Enforcement MA Highway Dept MA National Guard MA State Police MEMA USDA/APHIS/Vet Services USDA Farm Services Agency US Fisheries and Wildlife Service Other Participating Agencies Animal Control Officers Assn of MA Animal Rescue League of Boston Humane Society of US Becker & Mt. Ida Colleges MA Audubon Society MA Farm Bureau MA Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals MA Veterinary Medicine Assn New England Aquarium TUFTS School of Veterinary Medicine UMass Cooperative Extension Umass, Amherst Wildlife Rehabilitator’s Assn of MA Zoo New England Participating Municipal Agencies Municipal Animal Control Officers Municipal Animal Inspectors Municipal Boards of Health Category A:  Category A Anthrax Botulism Plague Smallpox Tularemia VHFs Agents/Diseases Category B Brucellosis Glanders Melioidosis Psittacosis Q Fever Typhus fever Viral encephalitis Toxins (S.E.B., Ricin, Clostridium perfringes A: 5 toxins) Food Safety Threats Water Safety Threats Category C Nipah virus Hantavirus Occur naturally in the US The CDC has designated potential pathogens into three categories based on what is known about biologic weaponization programs, availability of vaccines, anti-viral or anti-biotic medications, virulence of the specific pathogen and other factors. “Weaponization” of Agents:  “Weaponization” of Agents Alter species susceptibility You may see a pattern of disease but remain unsure of the causative agent; therefore we are looking for HALLMARK SYNDROMES. Makes the behavior of organisms less predictable Alter characteristics of a pathogen to make it a more effective weapon Enhance transmission Increase virulence Resistant to antibiotics Evade vaccine protection Alter clinical signs Anthrax:  Anthrax Bacteria: Bacillus anthracis Forms spores Human disease Skin Intestinal Inhalational (pneumonia) Animal disease Spreads through the system and rapid death Species affected: sheep, cattle, horses to a lesser degree: pigs, dogs, cats, and mink Botulism:  Botulism Bacteria: Clostridium botulinum: produce toxins Affects the nervous system Clinical signs: Generalized weakness Progresses to paralysis or convulsions Susceptible species: avian, cattle, dogs, horses, sheep, mink and ferret Pigs, dogs and cats fairly resistant Plague:  Plague Bacteria: Yersinia pestis Transmission: fleabites, aerosol, direct contact Signs: Human - enlarged lymph nodes, blood infection, respiratory disease Cats – similar to humans Species affected: more than 200 mammals Rodents are reservoir hosts Rabbits, wild carnivores, dogs and cats Slide21:  Variola virus Eradicated from the world in 1977 Narrow host range: humans only Transmission: person-to-person, contaminated items Clinical signs Flu-like, progressive skin eruptions Smallpox Tularemia:  Tularemia Bacteria: Francisella tularensis Transmitted by ingestion, inhalation, tick bites, direct contact through skin Six clinical forms in humans Susceptible species: rabbits, hares, rats, sheep, dogs, cats, pigs, horses, birds,reptiles and fish Naturally occurring on Martha’s Vineyard, MA Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers:  Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Early: fever, fatigue Severe: bleed from internal organs, body openings Progression to shock & seizures Animals: only non-human primates susceptible Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, and Machupo Human clinical presentation Vincent Massey Slide24:  Abortion in last trimester – primarily livestock HALLMARK SYNDROMES Sudden / Unexplained death Blisters or, Vesicular/Ulcerated lesions on the skin or mucous membranes Bloody diarrhea, severe and persistent Neurological signs – paralysis or convulsions Acute Respiratory signs/symptoms with fever High fever with swollen lymph nodes High fever over 104.5º Slide25:  Canine Syndromes Slide26:  Feline Syndromes Slide27:  Bovine Syndromes Slide28:  Equine Syndromes What to do if bioterrorism is suspected, in general::  What to do if bioterrorism is suspected, in general: Movement restrictions may be necessary Stay informed and remain calm Response is event specific Response is everyone's responsibility Follow the advice of public health officials Follow federal and state laws, regulations and guidelines Slide31:  What not to do if bioterrorism is suspected: DO NOT PANIC Slide32:  Your Role Have your contact numbers readily available Establish a relationship with a local veterinarian before any incident occurs Seek veterinary care promptly when an animal becomes ill Isolate sick animals If you are ill – and your animals as well – let your physician know Keep immunization and health records readily available Know your municipal animal inspector and/or animal control officer Familiarize yourself with the local animal disaster/emergency plan If your community doesn’t have a plan, work with local officials to organize one Cooperate with the health officials and safety officers Phone Numbers to Know :  Phone Numbers to Know Local Veterinarian Local Physician Municipal Animal Inspector +/or Control Officer Public Health Officials Municipal Board of Health MDPH Veterinarian: 617/983-6800 MDAR Veterinarian: 617/626-1795 USDA/APHIS/VS: 508/865-1421 Summary:  Summary Prevention, recognition, and response involves everyone You play a critical role “The best prescription is knowledge.” Dr. C. Everett Koop Former U.S. Surgeon General

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