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Published on October 28, 2007

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XML Standardization and Reuse of Sub-Schemas in the Danish Government Digital Services Project:  XML Standardization and Reuse of Sub-Schemas in the Danish Government Digital Services Project By Mikkel Hippe Brun, Technical Advisor for the Danish XML Committee, The Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation mhb@SchemaWorks.com Presentation at XML Europe 2003 2003.05.07 Agenda:  Agenda Background for the Danish XML project Organization: XML Committee and TC’s Challenges to XML-based application integration Philosophy of the Danish XML-project Multiple namespaces and Sub-Schema reuse The Infostructurebase About Mikkel Hippe Brun:  About Mikkel Hippe Brun M.Sc. Computer Science, University of Copenhagen SGML/XML since 1993 UC Irvine: Groupware/SGML 1994 Database publishing with markup technologies 1995-2001 Board member of Danish XML User Group Retired XML evangelist Technical advisor to the XML project of the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation since may 2001. Independent consultant since october 2002 Full time project coordinator at the XML-project since november 2002 San Francisco Cable Car Companies anno 1890:  San Francisco Cable Car Companies anno 1890 Public IT-systems in Denmark anno 2003 Similarities? The eight original San Francisco Cabel Car companies::  The eight original San Francisco Cabel Car companies: Clay Street Hill Railroad One line, 3½' gauge, bottom grip.  Service from September 1873 Sutter Street Railroad Two lines, 5' gauge, side grip.  Service from January 1877 California Street Cable Railroad Three lines, 3½' gauge, side grip on California St. line, bottom grip on the other two.  Service from April 1878 Presidio & Ferries Railroad One line, 5' gauge, bottom grip. Service from January 1882 Market Street Cable Railway Five lines, 4' 8½" gauge, side grip. Service from August 1883 Ferries & Cliff House Railway  Four lines, 3½' gauge, bottom grip. Service from March 1888 Omnibus Railroad & Cable Company  Five lines, 3½' guage bottom grip. Service from August 1889 Geary Street, Park & Ocean Railroad Geary Street, Park & Ocean Railroad began on February 16, 1880 Source: http://www.cablecarmuseum.com Characteristics of the San Francisco Cable Car Companies:  Characteristics of the San Francisco Cable Car Companies Specifications: Deliberate choice of incompatible gauges and cable grip systems Purpose: To protect the operator from hostile take over by competitors Problems: Tailor made cable cars and components Limited competition Higher prizes Expensive to integrate Difficult to make profitable Characteristics of Danish public sector IT-systems anno 2003:  Characteristics of Danish public sector IT-systems anno 2003 Specifications : Unintended choice of incompatible systems Purpose: None Problems: Tailor made IT-systems Limited competition Higher prizes Expensive to integrate Difficult to make profitable The barriers to efficient use of IT:  The barriers to efficient use of IT Source: Statistics Denmark – Use of IT in Danish municipalities 2001 Complexity in Digital Administration:  Complexity in Digital Administration Marketplace Supplier Municipality Central Office of Civil Registration Ministry of the environment National Building and Housing Registry National Archives Danish environmental protection agency Citizen Gaol: Service oriented architecture Slide10:  Organization of the Danish XML-project The Joint Board of Project E-government (Reps. From across the public sector) The Coordinating Information Committee (Reps. From across the public sector) XML Committee (Reps. from across the public sector) XML Secretariat (National IT and Telecom Agency) Reference Group (Public and private sector) Danish Information and Documentation TC Danish Core Components TC Danish eBusiness TC New groups The Digital Taskforce (Reps. From across the public sector) Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Challenges to XML-based application integration:  Challenges to XML-based application integration Integration without standardization Numerous variations on the same data ”Islands” of connected IT-systems Standardizing messages instead of vocabularies Standards with no authoritative implementation Mapping from UML to XML Low visibility of existing standardization initiatives National standardization under pressure Finding a business model for the public sector Standardization requires an investment The danger of wizards – or the danger of the ”golden button”:  The danger of wizards – or the danger of the ”golden button” Too easy to create Web Services using wizards Important to take control of the definition of the XML-interface The use of wizards moves workload to the recipient Philosophy of the Danish XML-project:  Philosophy of the Danish XML-project Demand for coordination and reuse Standardization of XML-interfaces in public IT systems Communities of Practice Reusable Information Objects Visions for a shared datamodel Formalized rules and procedures (cookbooks) Infrastruture / Tools Authorities and companies take responsibility and contribute with their own definitions Example: Reporting absence due to sickness and birth. Request for compensation:  Example: Reporting absence due to sickness and birth. Request for compensation Employee: Name & address Organization code (CVR) Civil registration number (CPR) Title Etc… Multiple namespaces Our datamodel: OIOXML:  Our datamodel: OIOXML Schema variations in our data model:  Schema variations in our data model The Infostructurebase: 4 tools:  The Infostructurebase: 4 tools Infostructurebase: Repository:  Infostructurebase: Repository TC’s and Hearing committees:  TC’s and Hearing committees XML Committee Core Components eBusiness TC Information and documentation TC Hearing Committees Communities of practice (Cop) XXX- industry organization? Standardization in a changing world:  Standardization in a changing world Datamodel (Stable) XML Schema standard (Stable in 3-5 years) Protocols (changing every day) Cookbooks:  Cookbooks http://isb.oio.dk/info/publications/ The standardization process:  The standardization process Need for standard identified Establishing of a Community of Practice (TC) Search international and national schema repositories Develop schemas and documentation Register in repository Submit proposed standard to hearing committee Quality check in hearing committee 30 day hearing Collection of hearing responses Approval / rejection Naming and Design Rules:  Naming and Design Rules Global coordination of Naming and Design Rules is very important Reuse Danish Naming and Design Rules Very close to UBL NDR Define data types the strongest possible way:  Define data types the strongest possible way Take advantage of the XML Schema-standard to declare the strongest possible data types Use the ”Venetian Blind”-model of XML Schema structuring:  Use the ”Venetian Blind”-model of XML Schema structuring Schemas must be structured ”modularly” Use named types Refer to elements and types Declare types globally – in the schema root Declare elements globally if the element could be used in other namespaces Make references to existing elements and types:  Make references to existing elements and types Copy / paste – not allowed. References are used for “consequence analysis” in the Infostructurebase Use English naming:  Use English naming ISO 11179 and UBL NDR International scope Exceptions allowed for specific Danish terms with local scope Naming of namespaces:  Naming of namespaces Public sector http://rep.oio.dk/InternetDomainName/xml/schemas/YYYY/MM/DD/ http://rep.oio.dk/xkom.dk/xml/schemas/2002/06/28/ Private sector http://rep.oio.dk/InternetDomainName/xml/schemas/YYYY/MM/DD/ or http://InternetDomainName/xml/schemas/YYYY/MM/DD/ Versioning:  Versioning A reference involves 3 steps: Association of a prefix with a namespace Import of schema file (ref. to namespace and schema location) Ref. to element using prefix Thus – it is only possible to identify an element given a combination of its name and namespace Versioning: 2 methods:  Versioning: 2 methods Namespace can change http://rep.oio.dk/cvr.dk/xml/schemas/2002/05 is changed to http://rep.oio.dk/cvr.dk/xml/schemas/2002/06 New type is declared <simpleType name="LastNameType"> <restriction base="string"> <minLength value="1"/> <maxLength value="35"/> </restriction> </simpleType> <simpleType name="LastNameType2"> <restriction base="string"> <minLength value="1"/> <maxLength value="70"/> </restriction> </simpleType> Summary I:  Summary I Challenges to XML-based application integration Integration without standardization Standards with no authoritative implementation Standardizing messages instead of vocabularies Low visibility of existing standardization initiatives Tender driven standardization Difficult business model in the public sector Development of successful Digital Administration requires: Coordination (XML-committee, Cookbooks) Reuse of Schema definitions Standardization of XML-interfaces Speedy standardization process A repository Summary II:  Summary II Good (but early) experiences with our data model Extreme reuse from many namespaces Strong data types ebXML / UBL embracement Potential benefit for the individual institution / company and the society as a whole Embrace ebXML / UBL Naming and Design Rules Reuse from existing vocabularies Slide33:  “Now! …. That should clear up a few things around here!” Questions:  Questions mhb@schemaworks.com Isb.oio.dk (Infostructurebase) Isb.oio.dk/info/publications/ (Cookbooks) www.argouml.org (Free UML-tool)

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