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Information about BRONCHITIS

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: sadafmumtaz14


BRONCHITIS: BRONCHITIS BRONCHITIS: BRONCHITIS Bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs. Bronchitis may be either acute or chronic . BRONCHITIS: BRONCHITIS Acute bronchitis usually improves within a few days without lasting effects, although you may continue to cough for weeks. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions included in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 3 2/17/2014 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The symptoms of acute bronchitis are due to acute inflammation of the bronchial wall, which causes increased mucus production together with oedema of the bronchus. This leads to the productive cough that is the hallmark of a lower respiratory tract infection. While the infection may clear in several days, repair of the bronchial wall may take several weeks. During the period of repair, patients will continue to cough. Pulmonary function studies of patients with acute bronchitis demonstrate bronchial obstruction similar to that in asthma. As the symptoms of acute bronchitis abate, pulmonary function returns to normal. 4 2/17/2014 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Half of all patients with acute bronchitis continue to cough for >2 weeks. [2] In a quarter of patients, cough may last for >1 month. This is termed post-bronchitis syndrome. This period probably reflects ongoing repair to the bronchial walls after the clearance of the acute infection. 5 2/17/2014 BRONCHITIS: BRONCHITIS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS For either acute bronchitis or chronic bronchitis, signs and symptoms may include: Cough Production of mucus (sputum), which can be clear, white, yellowish-gray or green in color Fatigue Slight fever and chills Chest discomfort 6 2/17/2014 CAUSES: CAUSES Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, typically the same viruses that cause colds and influenza. Antibiotics don't kill viruses, so this type of medication isn't useful in most cases of bronchitis. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking cigarettes. Air pollution and dust or toxic gases in the environment or workplace also can contribute to the condition . 7 2/17/2014 TESTS AND DIAGNOSIS: TESTS AND DIAGNOSIS During the first few days of illness, it can be difficult to distinguish the signs and symptoms of bronchitis from those of a common cold. During the physical exam, your doctor will use a stethoscope to listen closely to lungs as we breathe. In some cases, doctor may suggest: Chest X-ray. A chest X-ray can help determine if you have pneumonia or another condition that may explain your cough. Sputum culture . This test checks for the presence of bacteria in sputum produced when you cough. It's helpful in determining whether you have whooping cough ( pertussis ) or other illnesses that would be helped by antibiotics. Pulmonary function test. During a pulmonary function test, you blow into a device called a spirometer , which measures how much air your lungs can hold and how quickly you can get air out of your lungs. This test checks for signs of asthma or emphysema. 8 2/17/2014 TREATMENT : TREATMENT The goal of treatment for bronchitis is to relieve symptoms and ease breathing . In most cases, acute bronchitis requires only self-care treatments such as: Getting more rest Taking over-the-counter pain medications Drinking fluids Breathing in warm, moist air 9 2/17/2014 MEDICATIONS: MEDICATIONS In some circumstances, the doctor may prescribe medications, including: Antibiotics . Bronchitis usually results from a viral infection, so antibiotics aren't effective. However, our doctor may prescribe an antibiotic if he or she suspects that the patient has a bacterial infection. Incase of chronic lung disorder, the doctor may also prescribe antibiotics to reduce our risk of a serious, secondary infection. Cough medicine . It's best not to suppress a cough that brings up mucus, because coughing helps remove irritants from the lungs and air passages. Over-the-counter cough medicine may help if cough keeps you from sleeping. Other medications . Incase of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), doctor may recommend an inhaler and other medications to reduce inflammation and open narrowed passages in the lungs . 10 2/17/2014 REFERENCES: REFERENCES 11 2/17/2014

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