Published on November 6, 2007
Well-To-Wheel Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Analysis: Norman Brinkman GM Research & Development EPA Fuel Cells Workshop June 27, 2001 Well-To-Wheel Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Analysis What is a Well-to-Wheel Analysis?: What is a Well-to-Wheel Analysis? Systems approach Assessment of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions Why Do We Need Well-Tank-Wheel Analysis?: Why Do We Need Well-Tank-Wheel Analysis? Evaluate emerging propulsion technologies Advanced Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Evaluate new fuels Aid public policy development and business strategy Background: Background Considered 75 fuel “pathways” and 15 advanced and conventional powertrain systems Slide5: U.S. focus Time frame: 2005-2010 Predicts energy use and CO2 emissions GM full-size pickup truck All vehicles have equal performance Key Study Features Fuel Pathways: Fuel Pathways *Results presented today for underlined resources only Well-to-Tank Energy Consumption: BTU per Million BTU Fuel Delivered Well-to-Tank Energy Consumption Petroleum Natural Gas Renewable/ Electricity Slide8: Completed to date: Gasoline PFI Diesel CNG ICE E85 ICE (conventional automatic transmission) To be added in Phase 2: Gasoline SIDI Gasoline w/ cylinder deactivation 6-Spd MTAs CVTs Conventional Powertrain Slide9: Parallel Hybrid Configuration (Input Power Assist) Slide10: Fuel Cell Parallel Hybrid Configuration (Input Power Assist) Slide11: All Powertrains Sized to Meet Minimum Vehicle Performance Targets Vehicle Acceleration, 0-60 mph 10 sec Vehicle Acceleration, 0-30 mph 4 sec Vehicle Acceleration in Top Gear, 50-80 mph 20 sec Maximum Vehicle Acceleration 5 m/s2 Time to Maximum Acceleration 1 sec Vehicle Gradeability at 55 mph for 20 minutes 6 % Top Vehicle Speed 110 mph Slide12: Tank-to-Wheel Vehicle MPG Conventional Conventional Hybrid Fuel Cell MPG (Gasoline Equivalent) Fuel Cell Hybrid Slide13: Well-to-Wheel Integration Process 13 Pathways Reviewed Today Well-to-Wheel Energy Consumption: BTU/mile (fuel production and vehicle) Better Well-to-Wheel Energy Consumption Petroleum Natural Gas Renewable/ Electricity Well-to-Wheel Energy Consumption: BTU/mile (fuel production and vehicle) Better Well-to-Wheel Energy Consumption Petroleum Natural Gas Renewable/ Electricity Well-to-Wheel Energy Consumption: BTU/mile (fuel production and vehicle) Better Well-to-Wheel Energy Consumption Petroleum Natural Gas Renewable/ Electricity fuel cell hybrid Well-to-Wheel Greenhouse Gases: Well-to-Wheel Greenhouse Gases 0 200 400 600 800 Gasoline conventional Diesel conventional Diesel hybrid electric Gasoline fuel cell hybrid Naphtha fuel cell hybrid Fischer Tropsch diesel CNG conventional LH2 fuel cell hybrid Methanol fuel cell hybrid CH2 fuel cell hybrid E-85 conventional Ethanol fuel cell hybrid g CO2/mile (fuel production and vehicle) Petroleum Natural Gas Renewable/ Electricity Better Electrolysis CH2 FC hybrid Well-to-Wheel Study Conclusions: Well-to-Wheel Study Conclusions Fuel cell vehicles powered by clean gasoline offer greatly reduced greenhouse gas emissions vs. today’s powertrains/fuels Diesel hybrid is very competitive and a clear leader among non-fuel cell powertrains/fuels CNG does not offer significant benefit versus conventional fuels for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles Methanol fuel cell vehicles do not offer significant advantage vs. gasoline fuel cell vehicles Renewable fuels and nuclear power offer the lowest greenhouse gas emissions Slide19: Well-to-Tank Michael Wang, Argonne National Labs (lead) Norm Brinkman and Thomas Gibson, GM - R&D Tony Finizza, GM - GAPC consultant Andrew Armstrong and Jim Simnick, BP Gilbert Jersey and John Robbins, Exxon Mobil Jean Cadu, Shell Tank-to-Wheels Trudy Weber, GM - R&D (lead) Dave Masten, GM - GAPC Gerald Skellenger, GM - R&D Martin Fasse and Peter Kilian, Adam Opel AG - GAPC Well-to-Wheels Tony Finizza, GM - GAPC consultant (lead) Raj Choudhury, Adam Opel AG - GAPC Jim Wallace, GM - GAPC consultant (lead, overall project) Principal Investigators The report is available on the Web at: http://www.transportation.anl.gov
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