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Bringing Letters Sounds to Life

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Information about Bringing Letters Sounds to Life
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Published on October 22, 2008

Author: aSGuest1612

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Slide 1: Bringing Letter Sounds to Life: Merging Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Presented by: Marianne Nice M.S CCC-SLP Amy Leone M.S.T. CCC-SLP Phonemic Awareness Phonics Roles of SLP’s in Literacy : Roles of SLP’s in Literacy ASHA position Statement 2001: 1. Prevention 2. Identifying children at risk 3. Assessing 4. Provide direct intervention in reading and writing 5. Assuming other roles (providing assistance to general curriculum, advancing knowledge of school staff) American Speech-Language Hearing Association. (2001). Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists With Respect to Reading and Writing Children and Adolescents Slide 3: A three part definition of phonemic awareness 1. Understanding that words are composed of segments of sound smaller than a syllable. Words are made up of small reusable chunks of sound. 3. Increasing awareness of the critical distinctive features of phonemes so that their identity, order, and number can be specified in words of increasing complexity 2. Awareness of the way phonemes are coarticulated when they are blended Taken from: Torgesen, J.K. Teaching all students to read: Working together as a school level system. Invited presentation to annual meetings of the American Speech and Hearing Association. Miami, November, 2006. Slide 4: Why is it important for children to acquire good phonemic decoding skills (phonics) early in reading development? 1. Because learning to read involves everyday encounters with words the child has never before seen in print. 2. Phonemic analysis provides the most important single clue to the identity of unknown words in print. Taken from: Torgesen, J.K. Teaching all students to read: Working together as a school level system. Invited presentation to annual meetings of the American Speech and Hearing Association. Miami, November, 2006. Slide 5: Children who learn to read easily, enjoy reading, read more, are exposed to more complex and varied vocabulary, exhibit greater comprehension. Children who struggle with reading, become frustrated with reading, read less, encounter fewer new words, learn less vocabulary, and understand less of what they read. “Matthew Effects” Adapted from Coyne, M. Supporting Vocabulary Development. National Reading First Conference:New Orleans, July 2005 Slide 6: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hypothetical “Matthew Effects” Average Progression Poor Reader Grades Taken from: Burns, D. Pathways to literacy: Vocabulary. Borough School, October, 2004. What happens to struggling readers as they progress through school? : What happens to struggling readers as they progress through school? Below is a reading sample from a 7th grade student with a reading disability: Context: Social Studies Textbook Accuracy: 79% Words per Minute: 64 While the states were farming their government, the _________ Congress wrote a Congress for the national as a whole. Writing a __________ that all the states would approve was (a) difficult jobs. In 1776, few Americans thought of them slaves as citizens of one national. ___________ , they felt loyal to their own states. The new state were ________ to give too… What happens to struggling readers as they progress through school? : What happens to struggling readers as they progress through school? Below is a reading sample from a 7th grade student with a reading disability: Passage as it reads in the text: “While states were forming their governments, the Continental Congress wrote a constitution for the nation as a whole. Writing a constitution that all the states would approve was a difficult job. In 1776, few Americans thought of themselves as citizens of one nation. Instead, they felt loyal to their own states. The new states were unwilling to give too (much power to a national government).” Building Blocks of Successful Reading : Building Blocks of Successful Reading phonological awareness comprehension reading fluency phonics vocabulary phonemic awareness Phonological Awareness Continuum : Phonological Awareness Continuum Less Complex More Complex Phonemic Awareness Benefits : Phonemic Awareness Benefits - Prepares students to learn the Alphabetic Principle - Helps children read new words and remember unfamiliar ones - Helps children learn to spell Properties of Effective Phonemic Awareness Instruction: : Properties of Effective Phonemic Awareness Instruction: Move from simple to complex Gradually introduce print as children become aware of sounds Directly teach how to apply phonemic awareness skills to reading (decoding). Which phonemic awareness skill is related to reading? Properties of Effective Phonemic Awareness Instruction : Properties of Effective Phonemic Awareness Instruction Directly teach how to apply phonemic skills to spelling (encoding). Which phonemic awareness skill is related to spelling? Use hand-on activities vs. worksheets Slide 14: “Phonemic awareness is not acquired for its own sake but rather for its value in helping learners understand and use the alphabetic system to read and write.” - National Reading Panel, 2000 “A weakness of some SLP’s: don’t pay enough attention to the transition between phonemic awareness and phonics.” - Dr. Joseph Torgesen, ASHA 2006 Comprehension Skills : Comprehension Skills Pamela Hook, 2000 Word Identification Skills Slide 16: During reading and spelling activities, students begin to combine their knowledge of phonemic awareness and phonics /s/ /a/ /t/ “sat” Phonemic awareness instruction helps students begin to make the connection between letters and sounds sat Nancy Telian Slide 17: Studies have shown that the most effective phonemic awareness intervention programs include letter sound instruction and use of letters in phonemic awareness activities. Important Studies: -Bradley, Bryant (1983) -Blachman et al. (1991) - Williams (1980) - Oudeans (2003) Research StudyDr. Mary Karen Oudeans : Research StudyDr. Mary Karen Oudeans - Pilot study examined optimal sequence for integrating phonological blending and segmenting with letters. 55 children, randomly assigned to two instructional approaches -parallel integrated -parallel non-integrated Oudeans Study : Oudeans Study Parallel Integrated Group: - Children taught letter sound relationships during one activity - Children taught auditory skills of phoneme blending and segmenting during second activity * Activities integrated Oudeans Study Findings : Oudeans Study Findings Explicit instruction in blending and segmenting with letters demonstrated improvement in: -acquisition of alphabetic principle - single word decoding (at post-test) We can directly teach kids how to apply Phonemic Awareness skills by: : We can directly teach kids how to apply Phonemic Awareness skills by: Explicitly teaching letters’ sounds Explicitly teaching students how to blend phonemes with letters to improve decoding Explicitly teaching students to segment phonemes with letters to improve spelling Educate others in applying phonemic awareness skills to phonics Programs which incorporate letters into phonemic awareness training : Programs which incorporate letters into phonemic awareness training LiPS (Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program) Reading by the Rules (Wisnia-Kapp Reading Program) Lively Letters (Reading with TLC) Fundations (Wilson) Ladders to Literacy Slide 23: Lively Letters Developed in 1990 by Nancy Telian , M.S. CCC-SLP Used with at-risk readers, struggling readers, special education students, ELL students in a Boston Public School system Initial pre and post-test pilot study data demonstrated substantial gains in phonemic awareness, nonword decoding and oral reading Program officially published in 1994 Materials and trainings are available through Reading with TLC Lively Letters Program : Lively Letters Program a multisensory supplement to core reading curricula K-2 intervention program for students of all ages explicit and systematic teaches alphabetic principle simultaneously teaches phonemic awareness and early phonics skills Lively Letters Trains PA and Phonics Simultaneously By: : Lively Letters Trains PA and Phonics Simultaneously By: directly teaching students how to decode and encode providing students an opportunity to manipulate phonemes using letters providing opportunities for active learning and transfer of skills by tying together oral kinesthetic features of the sound with the letter shape Results: DIBELS Assessment1999-2000 Pittsfield, MA : Results: DIBELS Assessment1999-2000 Pittsfield, MA Slide 29: b p Lively Letters: Skills Taught : Lively Letters: Skills Taught Letter/Sound Associations- 44 sounds of our language plus additional vowel digraphs Rapid Naming of Letter Sounds High Level Phonemic Awareness Blending Segmenting Manipulating Orthographic (Visual) Awareness Decoding & Encoding Skills - Extensive One Syllable Level - Multisyllable Words 10 Key Features of TLC : 10 Key Features of TLC Intersensory – links 3 modalities Letter Shapes, Sounds, Oral Kinesthetic Movements Heavy use of mnemonics & imagery Language based Structured and explicit Discovery approach for consonants Diagnostic and prescriptive Track with letter picture cards Load removed from working memory Self cueing–rapid, automatic naming Remedial and preventive uses Introducing the SoundsLively Letters : Introducing the SoundsLively Letters Explain that you’re working with sounds and HOW they’re made. Use a guided discovery approach. Teach on/off feature of voice. Begin with the easiest sounds to produce and perceive (follow chart in Instruction Manual, Page 2) Produce consonants in isolation: exaggerate mouth, use hand cues. Introducing the SoundsLively Letters : Introducing the SoundsLively Letters 6. Students repeat the sound. 7. Guided discovery of how sound is produced. 8. Teacher labels sound and shows the Lively Letters card and story. (For vowels, the card is shown first) 9. Introduce consonants in pairs, when applicable. 10. Drill cards, progress through the program. Progressing Through Lively Letters : Progressing Through Lively Letters Introduce 6-8 consonants, drilling isolated sounds. Introduce 1 or 2 vowels. Put into tracking activities. Introduce more cards, tracking with real and non words. Each day, review old sounds, introduce new sounds if ready, and track with new letters. Slide 58: Tracking Academic Phonemic Awareness Decoding = Reading = Blending Encoding = Spelling = Segmenting SKILLS Increasing Levels of Difficulty : Increasing Levels of Difficulty When student is at 90% accuracy increase difficulty level by: Introducing new cards Increasing length of words Using more difficult materials Tracking:Decoding and Encoding : Tracking:Decoding and Encoding Tracking Make one change at a time : Tracking Make one change at a time Training Initial Sound Blending Skills : Training Initial Sound Blending Skills Begin with real-sounding V-C words Help student move first card into next Model the sound blending with student Elongate vowel sound; produce it loudly Introduce more letter sounds If can’t blend V-C, move to real C-V-C words First consonant should be a continuant sound Initial Sound Blending (cont.) : For student forgetting first sound, make it louder Blend CV as a unit then add the final sound and blend whole word (ex. ra -> t …. rat) Make substitution changes- all positions Student points to and sounds out each letter, then glides finger under all the letters- blending word. Have student choose picture of target word, while using the slide activity. Initial Sound Blending (cont.) Slide 64: Start with Vowel-Consonant (real words) Slide 65: Move to CVC (real words) start with a continuant sound Slide 66: Move to CVC (real words) start with a continuant sound The Slide! : The Slide! Use the Slide Activity Slide 68: Blend CV as a unit then add the final sound Slide 69: Student points to picture after blending sounds Use the picture-pointing activity -ROAST-Errors in speech, reading, and spelling : -ROAST-Errors in speech, reading, and spelling Reversals (lots / lost) Omissions (fog / frog) Additions (track / tack) Substitutions (bet / bit) Transpositions (slip / lisp) Decoding (reading) : Decoding (reading) “If that says ________,”(teacher changes a letter card) “What does this say?” Method: Student points to and sounds out each letter card, then blends them. Tracking : Tracking Reversals Tracking : Tracking Omissions Tracking : Tracking Additions Tracking : Tracking Substitutions Tracking : Tracking Transpositions Teaching Initial Segmenting Sounds : Teaching Initial Segmenting Sounds Line up the cards to spell a CVC word Draw arrows and lines below Teacher produces word, student repeats word Student and teacher produce each sound while pulling down its corresponding card Completely new word each time Encoding (spelling) : Encoding (spelling) “If that says ______, make it say _____.” (teacher says new word, changing one sound) Method: Instructor places several cards under the word. Student repeats the word. Student says each sound of the new word, while touching each letter of the old word. When the sound made doesn’t match the card, student changes the letter card. o b m h t g Slide 79: Segmenting/Encoding Sounds Slide 80: Segmenting/Encoding Sounds Slide 81: Segmenting/Encoding Sounds Tracking Strategies for Consonant Blends : Tracking Strategies for Consonant Blends Decoding Initial Consonant Blends : Decoding Initial Consonant Blends Student: Points to and sounds out each of the initial consonants and blends them together (as one beat) Points to and sounds out rest of letters Blends whole word 1 2 3 Decoding Final Consonant Blends : Decoding Final Consonant Blends Student: Covers last consonant completely with right hand With left hand, points to, sounds out and blends visible letters as a word Uncovers and sounds out final letter Blends the whole word 1 2 4 3 Encoding Consonant Blends- Initial and Final Positions - : Encoding Consonant Blends- Initial and Final Positions - (Student makes the card change) Same as encoding CVC words (no covering letters or blending initial blends) Student points to each letter of the old word while saying each sound of the new word. When he points to a letter that does not match the sound being produced, student makes a letter change. Working out difficulties: : Working out difficulties: Provide practice and contrast to help children work out perceptual difficulties you observed during auditory activities (ex. confusion between ‘i’, and ‘e’) Ask key questions to lead child to correct answer BEFORE they make mistake…..prevent errors from occurring. Vary your level of materials and difficulty to promote transfer Slide 87: How can you apply the information you learned today? Consider your role in literacy : Consider your role in literacy ASHA position Statement 2001: 1. Prevention 2. Identifying children at risk 3. Assessing 4. Provide direct intervention in reading and writing 5. Assuming other roles (providing assistance to general curriculum, advancing knowledge of school staff) American Speech-Language Hearing Association. (2001). Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists With Respect to Reading and Writing Children and Adolescents Slide 89: If You Already… Try… Work on sound discrimination …teaching letters and highlighting both visual and auditory features Initial and final sound identification Use mirrors to show students how to articulate sounds …supporting sound identification activities with letter tiles …continuing to use those and similar multisensory techniques to build sound-symbol correspondence (alphabetic principle) Slide 90: If You Already… Try… Write goals like this: “Sue will complete auditory phonemic awareness activities with 95% accuracy.” Writing goals like this: “Sue will blend, segment and manipulate sounds within single-syllable words with 95% accuracy, when supported letters and multi-sensory supports.” Slide 91: If You Already… Try… Work on auditory blending and segmenting with manipulatives …blending and segmenting with letter tiles: 1) Review/introduce just a few letter sounds at a time 2) use those letters sounds to directly teach early blending and segmenting 3) manipulate phonemes using ROAST Slide 92: If You Already… Try… Provide “Push-In” services to teach phonemic awareness Creating a center that: -Teaches early sound blending skills - Incorporates letter supported “tracking” activities (use ROAST!) Consult to classroom teachers …informing educators about the importance of directly teaching students how to include letters in sound play …model for teachers how to make the leap from PA to phonics References : References Ball, E.and Blachman B. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26 (1), 49-66. Bradley, L.and Bryant, P. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature 301, 419-421. Moats, L. (2000). Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing. National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching Children to Read: Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and its Implication for Reading Instruction. U.S. Department of Health and Human Studies, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Pub. No. 00-4754. References : References Oudeans, M. K. (2003). Integration of letter-sound correspondences and phonological awareness skills of blending and segmenting: a pilot study examining the effects of instructional sequence on word reading for kindergarten children with low phonological awareness. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26 (4), 258-280. Telian, N. (1993). Telian Mulisensory Mnemonic Letter Card Program, Lively Letters. Stoughton: Telian Learning Concepts. Williams, J. (1980). Teaching decoding with an emphasis on phoneme analysis and phoneme blending. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 1-15.

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