Published on September 16, 2015
1. Disorders of the Breast UNC School of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship Case Based Seminar Series
2. Objectives for Disorders of the Breast Describe the symptoms and physical examination findings of benign or malignant conditions of the breast Demonstrate the performance of a clinical breast examination Discuss the steps in evaluation of common breast complaints: mastalgia, mass, nipple discharge Discuss the initial management options for benign and malignant conditions of the breast
3. Primarily adipose tissue, glandular tissue, and suspensory ligaments Composed of 15-25 radially arranged lobes of parenchyma, each associated with a major lactiferous duct Each major duct extends from the nipple to terminate in a “terminal duct-lobular unit” via branching ducts of diminishing caliber Breast Anatomy
4. Breast Anatomy Ruan, W, Kleinberg, DL. Endocrinology 1999; 140:5075. Copyright © 1999 The Endocrine Society.
5. History: Change in general appearance of breast (size, symmetry) New or persistent skin changes New nipple inversion Breast pain (cyclic vs. noncyclic, duration, location in breast) Breast mass (how it was discovered, duration, change in size, location) Relationship of mass to menstrual cycles Nipple discharge (unilateral vs. bilateral, color) Medications (e.g. hormones) Risk factors for breast cancer Evaluation: History
6. Risk Factors vs. Protective Factors Evaluation: History Risk Factors Protective factors BRCA1 and BRCA2 Breastfeeding 1˚ relative with breast or ovarian cancer Parity Personal history of breast disease Recreational exercise Age > 70 yrs Postmenopause BMI < 23 Age at menarche < 12 yrs Oophorectomy at < 35 yrs Nulliparous or age at first birth > 30 yrs Aspirin Never breastfed Age at menopause > 55 yrs Use of OCP’s HRT (estrogen + progestin) Radiation exposure to chest EtOH
7. Clinical Breast Exam: Inspect (relaxed, arms raised, hands on hips) Breast symmetry Skin changes (dimpling, retraction, edema, ulceration) Nipples (symmetry, inversion/retraction, discharge) Palapation (breasts, axillae, entire chest wall) Pain Masses Regional lymph nodes (Axillary and Supraclavicular) Documentation “Clock” system Location of concern and abnormality Distance from areola Size of mass Evaluation: Physical Exam
8. Clinical Breast Exam: Evaluation: Physical Exam Use pads of the index, third, and fourth fingers (inset) make small circular motions Make three circles with the finger pads, increasing the level of pressure (subcutaneous, mid-level, and down to the chest wall) with each circle Position the patient in the direction of palpation for the CBE. Sanslow, D, et. al. Clinical breast examination” practical recommendations for optimizing performance and reporting. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004 Nov-Dec; 54(6): 327-44
9. Benign vs. Malignant Chief Complaint Benign Characteristics Malignant Characteristics Breast mass Multiple lesions Single lesion “Rubbery” Hard Mobile Immovable Well circumscribed border Irregular borders Nipple discharge Bilateral Unilateral Multiductal Uniductal Milky Bloody, Clear, or Colored Spontaneous Persistent Skin changes Retraction Dimpling Thickening
10. Benign Nonproliferative Fibrocystic changes Simple cysts Lactational adenoma Fibroadenoma Hyperplasia without atypia Epithelial hyperplasia Sclerosing adenosis Intraductal papillomas Hyperplasia with atypia LCIS DCIS Breast Disease Malignant Ductal carcinoma Lobular carcinoma Tubular carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma Micropapillary carcinoma Metaplastic carcinoma Inflammatory carcinoma
11. Approximately 45% of women have mild breast pain, and 21% have severe breast pain in their lifetime Breast cancer is found in 1.2 – 6.7% of women presenting with breast pain Mastalgia: Incidence
12. Differential Diagnosis: Cyclic Cyclic mastalgia Fibrocystic disease Non-cyclic Large pendulous breasts Diet, lifestyle Mastitis Hormone replacement therapy Ductal ectasia Inflammatory breast cancer Extramammary (non-breast) pain Mastalgia: Etiology
13. History Unilateral vs. bilateral Cyclic vs. noncyclic Systemic or local symptoms (e.g. erythema, fever) History of trauma Clinical breast exam Evaluation Ultrasound Mammogram Mastalgia: Evaluation
14. Cyclic mastalgia Normal hormonal changes Particularly luteal phase of menstrual cycle Fibrocystic disease Increased fibrous or cystic tissue Pendulous breasts Stretching of Cooper’s ligaments Mastalgia: Evaluation
15. Fibrocystic disease Premenopausal women Premenstrual breast swelling/tenderness Nodules/masses/lumps related to dense breast tissue or cysts Mastalgia: Fibrocystic Disease Fibrous tissue Cystically dilated ducts + Calcifications + Ductal hyperplasia
16. Treatment: Lifestyle Eliminate caffeine Low fat diet Symptomatic Support garments (well-fitting, supportive bra, sports bra) Compresses Medication NSAID’s OCP’s, Progestogens Danazol Bromocriptine GnRH agonists Tamoxifen - IF severe mastalgia Mastalgia: Management
17. Presentation Usually seen in breastfeeding mothers Unilateral, swollen, wedge-shaped area of breast Pain, redness, induration (hardening) Systemic symptoms (high fever, malaise, chills) Treatment Rest, fluids Dicloxicllin 500mg QID x 10-14d Continue frequent breast feeding Mastalgia: Mastitis
18. Inflammatory breast cancer Mastalgia: Inflammatory Breast Cancer Peau d’orange-dimpling of involved skin due to retraction caused by lymphatic involvement and obstruction Associated erythema Cellulitis may mimic inflammatory carcinoma
19. More than 90% of palpable breast masses in women in their 20’s to early 50’s are benign Differential Diagnosis: Fibrocystic changes Fibroadenoma Fat necrosis Phyllodes tumor Intraductal papilloma Breast cancer Breast Mass: Etiology
20. History How it was discovered Duration Change in size Location Relationship of mass to menstrual cycles Clinical breast exam Breast Mass: Evaluation
21. Fibroadenoma Solitary, firm, rubbery, mobile mass Women < 30 yrs Slow growing (? hormonally mediated) Breast Mass: Fibroadenoma Fibroadenoma gross specimen Firm, tan, lobulated Well circumscribed mass Variable size
22. Intraductal papilloma Unilateral bloody nipple discharge Sub-areolar intraductal mass Breast Mass: Intraductal Papilloma Intraductal papillary neoplasm with fibrovascular cores lined by benign ductal and myoepithelial cells Duct excision
23. Fat Necrosis Caused by trauma Tender, firm mass with indistinct borders May appear suspicious on physical exam Benign breast calcification seen on mammography Breast Mass: Fat Necrosis Fat necrosis manifesting as a spiculated mass Densely calcified 3-cm area of fat necrosis 2 years after blunt trauma to the breast.
24. Initial evaluation < 30 yr – Diagnostic ultrasound + Diagnostic mammogram > 30 yr – Diagnostic mammogram Further evaluation Simple cyst Symptomatic – Aspirate Asymptomatic – Observe for 2-4 months Complicated cyst – Ultrasound-guided aspiration Solid mass – Core needle biopsy (CNB) or Excision No specific findings – Re-examine after two cycles Breast Mass: Evaluation
25. Breast Ultrasound
26. Fibroadenoma Breast Cancer Mammogram
27. Etiology Lactation Physiologic nipple discharge Hyperprolactinemia Hypothyroidism Medication related Neurogenic stimulation Pathologic Intraductal papilloma Ductal ectasia DCIS Nipple Discharge: Etiology
28. History Unilateral vs. bilateral Spontaneous vs. provoked discharge Appearance of discharge Medications (e.g. antipsychotics, antidepressants) History of trauma History of amenorrhea History of hypogonadism (e.g. hot flashes, vaginal dryness) Clinical breast exam Attempt to elicit discharge, identify involved duct(s) Evaluate discharge for gross blood or guaiac positivity Nipple Discharge: Evaluation
29. Initial evaluation: Breast ultrasound Mammogram IF woman > 30 yrs Multiductal discharge UPT, Prolactin, TSH Further evaluation: Ductography Ductoscopy MRI Nipple Discharge: Evaluation Ductogram
30. Management Physiologic nipple discharge Directed at underlying cause Pathologic nipple discharge Refer to surgeon Terminal duct excision Central (total) terminal duct excision Resection of intraductal papilloma Nipple Discharge: Management
31. Pathologic finding on CNB or excision biopsy DCIS/LCIS Invasive carcinoma Refer to surgical oncologist Treatment modalities: Radiation Chemotherapy Lumpectomy Mastectomy Hormonal therapy Malignant Breast Disease
32. Bottom Line Concepts It is important to evaluate breast complaints thoroughly to ensure that breast cancers, as well as benign breast lesions, are diagnosed and treated promptly. Evaluation of a woman presenting with a breast complaints requires careful assessment of symptoms and risk factors for developing breast cancer. The clinical breast exam include inspection and palpation of the breast tissue, chest wall, and regional lymph nodes. Documentation should included both positive and negative findings. Women with breast problems can present with any combination of symptoms including breast mass or thickening, breast pain, nipple discharge, or skin changes. Typically, women presenting with a suspicious breast mass who are > 30 yrs should receive a diagnostic mammogram, whereas women younger than 30 should receive a diagnostic ultrasound. Negative imaging should not stop further investigation is a suspicious lump is felt on clinical exam. Masses that are solid on ultrasound imaging require biopsy to exclude cancer and provide a histological diagnosis.
33. References and Resources APGO Medical Student Educational Objectives, 9th edition, (2009), Educational Topic 40 (p84-85). Beckman & Ling: Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6th edition, (2010), Charles RB Beckmann, Frank W Ling, Barabara M Barzansky, William NP Herbert, Douglas W Laube, Roger P Smith. Chapter 31 (p283-294). Hacker & Moore: Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5th edition (2009), Neville F Hacker, Joseph C Gambone, Calvin J Hobel. Chapter 29 (p326-331).
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