Breast cancer novel: SOFT TISSUE

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Information about Breast cancer novel: SOFT TISSUE

Published on November 15, 2008

Author: chemutube


Soft Tissue 1 : Soft Tissue 1 Love Story Friends hang out Boy meets girl, and they fall in love How the love unfolds is the essence of the novel Love is tested by adversity UNIVERSAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM : UNIVERSAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM The energy of the universe is in Constant disorder, entropy. The universe attempts to achieve a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. It is this state of increased entropy (disorder) that enables the system to function, providing the energy for molecular transformation The Universe : The Universe Sun Sun Sun Sun Humans Carbon dioxide Oxygen Ozone Ozone Universe UV rays Ecosystem Plants Homeostasis(Biochemical) : Homeostasis(Biochemical) Various processes which help regulate and maintain constancy of the internal environment of a cell or organism at appropriate levels. Example: The prevention of blood loss following rupture of blood vessels, which is effected by several physiological processes. Homeostasis (cont’d) : Homeostasis (cont’d) INITIALLY, BLEEDING IS RESTRICTED BY CONSTRICTION OF THE DAMAGED VESSELS, WHOSE ENDOTHELIAL SURFACES ALSO STICK TOGETHER. THE DAMAGE TO THE VESSEL ENDOTHELIUM EXPOSES COLLAGEN, WHICH ATTRACTS PLATELETS TO THE SITE. THESE BECOME STICKY AND RELEASE ARACHIDONIC ACID, WHICH IS CONVERTED TO THROMBOXANE A2. THIS ATTRACTS OTHER PLATELETS TO THE SITE SO THAT A PLUG FORMS. NEIGHBORING UNDAMGED AREAS CONTINUE TO RELEASE PROSTACYCLIN WHICH INHIBITS PLETELETS AGGREGATION AND SO PREVENT UNNECESSARY ENLARGEMENT OF THE PLUG. THE VARIOUS STAGES OF BLOOD CLOTHING THEN ENSUES. HOMEOSTASIS CONTROLS : HOMEOSTASIS CONTROLS IN MAMMALS (HOMEOSTATICALLY SOPHISTICATED): A) BLOOD GLUCOSE (INSULIN, PH LEVEL, CARBON DIOXIDE): IF YOUR BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IS TOO HIGH, YOUR PANCREAS SECRETES THE HORMONE INSULIN, WHICH REMOVES SOME OF THE GLUCOSE FROM YOUR BLOOD STREAM. BUT AFTER THE GLUCOSE LEVEL IS BACK WITHIN NORMAL RANGE, THE PANCREAS HAS TO STOP PRODUCING INSULIN OR YOUR GLUCOSE LEVEL MAY DROP TO BELOW NORMAL. SO NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS SHUT DOWN THE SECRETION OF HORMONES AFTER THEY HAVE DONE THEIR JOB. Three Ways To Regulate Cholesterol metabolism : Three Ways To Regulate Cholesterol metabolism 1) the activity of HMG-CoA reductase 2) the rate of LDL receptor synthesis 3) the rate of esterification of cholesterol by ACAT (acetyl-CoA cholesterol acetyltransferase) to form cholesteryl esters Types Of Cholesterol : Types Of Cholesterol HDL – high density lipoprotein –[‘good guy’], Also removes LDL from the vascular system. LDL – low density lipoprotein – [‘bad guy’] HDL greater than 60 – good. Acetyl-CoA“The Grand Central Station Of Metabolism” : Acetyl-CoA“The Grand Central Station Of Metabolism” Slide 10:  Feed-back Inhibition Acetyl-CoA HMG-CoA HMG-CoA Reductase Mevalonate Cholesterol Bile Acid Sex/Steroid hormones Vitamin D Feed-back Inhibition Liver Stages in Feedback mechanism : Stages in Feedback mechanism Cholesterol is synthesized from Acetyl-CoA LDL transports cholesterol from the liver (packaged as VLDL –very low density lipoprotein- ab enter the blood stream. VLDL gradually becomes IDL-intermediate density lipoprotein) and LDL-low density lipoprotein) as they circulate Surplus cholesterol is esterified, transported to the liver via HDL, where it is disposed of in the form of bile acids, secreted into the small intestine. Exogenous cholesterol are received by the peripheral tissues by LDL-receptor-mediated endocytosis. Synthesis from acetyl-CoA is suppressed by dietary cholesterol Dietary cholesterol is transported from the intestine by chylomicrons. The Control Mechanism 12 : The Control Mechanism 12 Long-term feed-back control of the amount of enzyme present in the cell When LDL-cholesterol or mevalonate level fall, the level of HMG-CoA reductase can rise as much as 200 folds, due to an increase in enzyme synthesis combined with a decrease in its degradation. This effect is readily reversible High Blood Cholesterol(Hypercholesterolemia) : High Blood Cholesterol(Hypercholesterolemia) Results from overproduction and/or underutilization of LDL Caused by two irregularities 1) genetic disease familial hypercholesterolemia. They lack LDL receptor protein 2) the consumption of high cholesterol diet. Some Cholesterol Products : Some Cholesterol Products (No Cholesterol, No Sex Hormones) Androgen (male hormones) Progesterone Testosterone (female hormones) Estrogen Estradiol – predominant before menopause Estrone – predominat after menopause Estriol – predominat during pregnancy Vitamin D Estrogen Hormone Based Drugs : Estrogen Hormone Based Drugs Over 30 Contraceptive pills in the market RU-486 (morning after) Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) Note: Women taking combinations of estrogen and progesterone seem to have greater risk of breast cancer than women taking estrogen alone. Some women who take the contraceptive pill have a higher risk of developing cancer. Contraceptives/HRT(Risk) : Contraceptives/HRT(Risk) Blood Clot Stroke Heart Attacks Breast Cancer Venous thromboembolism (VTE) Worsen Diabetes – increases glucose levels, decreases insulin response Gall Bladder disease (gallstones) – bile becomes oversaturated with cholesterol Soft Tissue: Main Points : Soft Tissue: Main Points 1) Blood Clot * Drugs that dissolve blot clot: tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) * Anticlotting drug: Heparin, aspirin 2) Blood-oxygen Deprivation Blood Clot : Blood Clot Cholesterol (endogenous) (exogenous) Vascular System (blood stream) Narrows Artery Blood Clot Deposit Thickening of artery Atherosclerosis Atheromas Oxygen Deprivation : Oxygen Deprivation Two Common Causes Of Human Death (especially in the industrialized western world): A) Myocardial Infarction (heart attack) B) Stroke (interruption of blood-oxygen supply to a portion of the heart or the brain respectively.) Potential Cancer Causing Source: : Potential Cancer Causing Source: 1) Diet 2) Environmental factors 3) Life Style (tobacco, alcohol, medication) Cancer : Cancer 1) Body is made up of different types of cells 2) Misreading of the genetic instructions in the cell mechanisms causes uncontrollable cell division 3) Cells proliferate, form lumps, grow own blood vessels 4) That’s CANCER (neoplasm – any new or abnormal overgrowth of cellular tissue, cellular tumor) Biochemically the body is organized to near perfection. Breast Cancer (a hormone dependent cancer) : Breast Cancer (a hormone dependent cancer) 1) Increased level of sex hormones exert exponential activity on their target organs, in this case, the breast. OBESITY – excessive storage of fat. Androgen Estrogen Aromatase Increase in aromatase means increase in estrogen formation. Fact: Obese women have more adipose tissue, fat deposit therefore more aromatase. ANTI-ESTROGEN THERAPY HER2 Gene(Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2) : HER2 Gene(Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2) In breast cancer, tumors express the human epidermal growth factor type 2 gene (HER2) HER-2 negative (stage 2 breast cancer) tumors [Lumpectomy – saves your natural breast), a breast conserving surgery] [Mastectomy – radical removal of the entire breast] Prostaglandin And Thromboxane(in the stomach) : Prostaglandin And Thromboxane(in the stomach) Prostaglandin protects the stomach lining from corrosion from the acidic stomach medium (Aspirin, an antiplatelet, prevents blot clot) Thromboxane stimulates the coagulation of blood (vitamin K enables blood to clot otherwise open wounds will bleed forever) DO THE ‘BLOOD CLOT’ MATH : DO THE ‘BLOOD CLOT’ MATH If blood clot (B) causes stroke (S), and Blood clot is the cause of oxygen deprivation (D); therefore, oxygen deprivation is the cause of stroke: FOR B, D, and S B = S B = D Therefore, D = S

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