Published on March 6, 2014
BRAZIL BERK BARLAK ÇAĞRI KOCABALKAN
National Anthem of Brazil
History of Brazil
History of Brazil • The Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive in the area, led by adventurous Pedro Cabral, who began the colonial period in 1500. The Portuguese reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven million. Most tribes were peripatetic, with only limited agriculture and temporary dwellings, although villages often had as many as 5000 inhabitants. Cultural life appears to have been richly developed, although both tribal warfare and cannibalism were ubiquitous. The few remaining traces of Brazil's Indian tribes reveal little of their lifestyle, unlike the evidence from other Andean tribes. Today, fewer than 200,000 of Brazil's indigenous people survive, most of whom inhabit the jungle areas.
History of Brazil Landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral at Porto Seguro in 1500. Oil on canvas Oscar Pereira da Silva (1904).
History of Brazil • Other Portuguese explorers followed Cabral, in search of valuable goods for European trade but also for unsettled land and the opportunity to escape poverty in Portugal itself. The only item of value they discovered was the pau do brasil (brazil wood tree) from which they created red dye. Unlike the colonizing philosophy of the Spanish, the Portuguese in Brazil were much less focused at first on conquering, controlling, and developing the country. Most wereimpoverished sailors, who were far more interested in profitable trade and subsistence agriculture than in territorial expansion. The country's interior remained unexplored.
History of Brazil • Nonetheless, sugar soon came to Brazil, and with it came imported slaves. To a degree unequaled in most of the American colonies, the Portuguese settlers frequently intermarried with both the Indians and the African slaves, and there were also mixed marriages between the Africans and Indians. As a result, Brazil's population is intermingled to a degree that is unseen elsewhere. Most Brazilians possess some combination of European, African, Amerindian, Asian, and Middle Eastern lineage,and this multiplicity of cultural legacies is a notable feature of current Brazilian culture.
History of Brazil • The move to open the country's interior coincided with the discovery in the 1690s of gold in the south-central part of the country. The country's gold deposits didn't pan out, however, and by the close of the 18th century the country's focus had returned to the coastal agricultural regions. In 1807, as Napoleon Bonaparte closed in on Portugal's capital city of Lisbon, the Prince Regent shipped himself off to Brazil. Once there, Dom Joao established the colony as the capital of his empire. By 1821 things in Europe had cooled down sufficiently that Dom Joao could return to Lisbon, and he left his son Dom Pedro I in charge of Brazil. When the king attempted the following year to return Brazil to subordinate status as a colony, Dom Pedro flourished his sword and declared the country's independence from Portugal (and his own independence from his father).
History of Brazil Declaration of the Brazilian independence by the Portuguese born Emperor Dom Pedro I on 7 September 1822.
History of Brazil • In the 19th century coffee took the place of sugar as Brazil's most important product. The boom in coffee production brought a wave of almost one million European immigrants, mostly Italians, and also brought about the Brazilian republic. In 1889, the wealthy coffee magnates backed a military coup, the emperor fled, and Brazil was no more an imperial country. The coffee planters virtually owned the country and the government for the next thirty years, until the worldwide depression evaporated coffee demand. For the next half century Brazil struggled with governmental instability, military coups, and a fragile economy. In 1989, the country enjoyed its first democratic election in almost three decades. Unfortunately, the Brazilians made the mistake of electing Fernando Collor de Mello. Mello's corruption did nothing to help the economy, but his peaceful removal from office indicated at least that the country's political and governmental structures are stable.
History of Brazil The Brazilian coup d'état of 1930 raised Getúlio Vargas (center-front, no hat) to power. He ruled the country for fifteen years. Photo from 1939, commemorating 50 years of the Republic.
History of Brazil • • Brazil has the sixth largest population in the world--about 148 million people--which has doubled in the past 30 years. Because of its size, there are only 15 people per sq. km, concentrated mainly along the coast and in the major cities, where two-thirds of the people now live: over 19 million in greater Sao Paulo and 10 million in greater Rio. The immigrant Portuguese language was greatly influenced by the numerous Indian and African dialects they encountered, but it remains the dominant language in Brazil today. In fact, the Brazilian dialect has become the dominant influence in the development of the Portuguese language, for the simple reason that Brazil has 15 times the population of Portugal and a much more dynamic linguistic environment.
What is the flag of Brazil? The flag of Brazil is green with a large yellow diamond in the centre bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress).
How did Brazil get it’s name? • When the Portuguese first arrived, they called the land "Ilha de Vera Cruz" (Vera Cruz Island). When they realized that this land was not an island, they changed it's name to "Terra de Santa Cruz" (Land of Santa Cruz). However, to avoid losing the territory that France was now interested in obtaining, they started to extract wood from a tree named "Pau-Brasil". Due to the extraction from this tree, they changed the lands name to "Brasil" (Brazil).
Government • Brazil is governed under the 1988 constitution as amended. The president, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (and may serve two terms), is both head of state and head of government. There is a bicameral legislature consisting of an upper Federal Senate and a lower Chamber of Deputies. The 81 senators are elected for eight years and the 513 deputies are elected for four years. The president may unilaterally intervene in state affairs. Administratively, the country is divided into 26 states and one federal district (Brasília); each state has its own governor and legislature. The main political parties are the Brazilian Democratic Movement party, the Liberal Front party (now known as the Democrats party), the Democratic Labor party, the Brazilian Social Democracy party, and the Workers party.
Government • Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on representative democracy. The federal government has three independent branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the executive branch, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet. The President is both the head of state and the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the regional federal courts.
Government National Congress Building Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Government Dilma Vana Rousseff (Portuguese pronunciation: is a Brazilian politician who has been the President of Brazil since 1 January 2011. She is the first woman to hold the office.
States • • • The 26 Brazilian states are semi-autonomous self-governing entities organized with complete administration branches, relative financial independence and their own set of symbols, similar to those owned by the country itself. Despite their relative autonomy they all have the same model of administration, as set by the Federal Constitution. States hold elections every four years and exercise a considerable amount of power. The 1988 constitution allows states to keep their own taxes, and mandates regular allocation of a share of the taxes collected locally by the federal government. The Executive role is held by the Governador (Governor) and his appointed Secretários (Secretaries); the Legislative role is held by the Assembléia Legislativa (Legislative Assembly); and the Judiciary role, by the Tribunal de Justiça (Justice Tribunal). The governors and the members of the assemblies are elected, but the members of the Judiciary are appointed by the governor from a list provided by the current members of the State Law Court containing only judges (these are chosen by merit in exams open to anyone with a Law degree). The name chosen by the governor must be approved by the Assembly before inauguration. The 1988 Constitution has granted the states the greatest amount of autonomy since the Old Republic.
States • • Each of the 26 state governors must achieve more than 50 per cent of the vote, including a second round run-off between the top two candidates if necessary. In contrast to the federal level, state legislatures are unicameral, although the deputies are elected through similar means, involving an open-list system in which the state serves as one constituency. State level elections occur at the same time as those for the presidency and Congress. In 2002, candidates from eight different parties won the gubernatorial contest while 28 parties are represented in the country’s state legislatures. The last set of elections took place in 2006. The most important Brazilian states (in terms of population and economic power) are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, Bahia, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina.
Military The Brazilian Armed Forces is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy (including the Brazilian Marine Corps and Brazilian Naval Aviation) and the Brazilian Air Force.
Place of Brazil in the WorldMap
Geography • Brazil covers nearly half of South America and is the continent's largest nation. It extends 2,965 mi (4,772 km) north-south, 2,691 mi (4,331 km) east-west, and borders every nation on the continent except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil may be divided into the Brazilian Highlands, or plateau, in the south and the Amazon River Basin in the north. Over a third of Brazil is drained by the Amazon and its more than 200 tributaries. The Amazon is navigable for ocean steamers to Iquitos, Peru, 2,300 mi (3,700 km) upstream. Southern Brazil is drained by the Plata system—the Paraguay, Uruguay, and Paraná rivers.
Climate • The climate of Brazil varies considerably mostly from tropical north (the equator traverses the mouth of the Amazon) to temperate zones below the Tropic of Capricorn (23°27' S latitude). Temperatures below the equator are high, averaging above 25 °C (77 °F), but not reaching the summer extremes of up to 40 °C (104 °F) in the temperate zones. There is little seasonal variation near the equator, although at times it can get cool enough for wearing a jacket, especially in the rain.
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro • Rio de Janeiro commonly referred to simply as Rio,is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th largest in the Americas, and 26th in the world.
Rio de Janeiro
Christ the Redeemer • • • • The idea of placing a large Christian monument atop Corcovado peak in Rio dates back to the 1850s, when a local Catholic priest requested funds from Princess Isabel to build one. The princess was not enthusiastic and the plan was scrapped entirely with the founding of the Republic of Brazil in 1889, which separated church and state. In 1921, the Catholic Circle of Rio began to collect signatures and donations for a privately-funded Christian monument. Various designs were considered, including a large cross and a statue of Christ holding a globe, but ultimately an image of Christ with his arms wide open was chosen. Construction began in 1922. The statue of Christ the Redeemer was designed by local engineer Heitor da Silva Costa and sculpted from concrete and soapstone by Paul Landowski, a Frenchman. After nine years and a cost of $250,000, the statue opened to the public on October 12, 1931. To celebrate Christ the Redeemer's 75th anniversary in 2006, a chapel dedicated to the patron saint of Brazil (Nossa Senhora Aparecida) was built at the base. The statue was struck by lightning in February 2008 during a major electrical storm, but escaped any damage due to the insulating properties of soapstone.
Rio de Janeiro
Sao Paulo • • São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city proper in the southern hemisphere and Americas and the world's eighth largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among the ten largest metropolitan areas on the planet. São Paulo is the capital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil's most populous state. It exerts strong regional influence in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment and a strong international influence. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus. São Paulo has the largest economy, by GDP, among Latin American and Brazilian cities.Its GDP per capita is the fifth highest among the larger Latin American cities and Brazil's second highest, behind Brasília.
Brasilia • Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and the seat of government of the Federal District. Administratively, the city is located in the Federal District which is in the Central-West Region. Physically, it is located in the Brazilian Highlands. It has a population of about 2,562,963 (3,716,996 in the metropolitan area) as of the 2008 IBGE estimate, making it the fourth largest city in Brazil. However, as a metropolitan area, it ranks lower at sixth in population. Brasília is the largest city in the world that did not exist at the beginning of the 20th century.
Wildlife of Brazil The Amazon rainforest, the richest and most biodiverse rainforest in the world.
Wildlife of Brazil • • Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world, with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity. In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions. The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million. Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant. Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests. Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues. Biodiversity can contribute to agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries extraction. However, almost all economically exploited species of plants, such as soybeans and coffee, or animals, such as chicken, are imported from other countries, and the economic use of native species still crawls. In the Brazilian GDP, the forest sector represents just over 1% and fishing 0.4%.
Wildlife of Brazil A Toco Toucan on the left and a Jaguar on the right
World Heritage List • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cultural Brasilia (1987) Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia (1985) Historic Centre of São Luís (1997) Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina (1999) Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás (2001) Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda (1982) Historic Town of Ouro Preto (1980) Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil) (1983) Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea (2012) Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas (1985) São Francisco Square in the Town of São Cristóvão (2010) Serra da Capivara National Park (1991) Natural Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves (1999) Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves (2001) Central Amazon Conservation Complex (2000) Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks (2001) Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves (1999) Iguaçu National Park (1986) Pantanal Conservation Area (2000)
Ignaçu National Park
Finger of God
Economy • The economy of Brazil is the world's seventh largest by nominal GDP. Brazil has moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. Its economy is the largest in Latin American nations and the second largest in the western hemisphere. Brazil is one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5 percent. In Brazilian reals, its GDP was estimated at R$ 4.403 trillion in 2013($2.223 trillion USD). The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest economies in the world in the decades to come. Brazil is a member of diverse economic organizations, such as Mercosur, Unasul, G8+5, G20, WTO, and the Cairns Group. Its trade partners number in the hundreds, with 60 percent of exports mostly of manufactured or semimanufactured goods. Brazil's main trade partners in 2008 were: Mercosul and Latin America (25.9 percent of trade), EU (23.4 percent), Asia (18.9 percent), the United States (14.0 percent), and others (17.8 percent)
Currency The real is the present-day currency of Brazil. Its sign is R$ and its ISO code is BRL.
Infrastructure Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation and second-largest by installed capacity.
Components • Brazil's economy is diverse, encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services. • Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007, a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance.
Components • The industry — from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computer s, aircraft, and consumer durables— accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product. • Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.
Agriculture Main products Coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus, beef Agriculture growth rate 9.2% (2008) Labor force 15% of total labor force GDP of sector 3.5% of total GDP
Industry Main industries: Automobile industry, petrochemicals, machinery, electronics, cement and construction, aircraft, textiles, food and beverages, mining, consumer durables, tourism Industrial growth rate: 8.8% (2008 est.) Labor force: 21% of total labor force GDP of sector: 29.7% of total GDP
Energy • Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol. • The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in 1978, the first airplane engine running on ethanol in 2005.
Energy • It is expected to become a major oil producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries. • The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.
Largest Companies in Brazil
Brazil–Turkey Relations Relations between Brazil and Turkey have roots that predate the foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923. Brazil maintains an embassy in Ankara while Turkey is represented in Brazil through the Embassy of Turkey in Brasília and a Consulate General in São Paulo. Both countries are full members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). In May 2010, Brazil and Turkey signed a tripartite agreement with Iran aimed at partly resolving the diplomatic crisis surrounding Iran's nuclear program.
Transportation • Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totalled 1.98 million km in 2002. Sao Paolo traffic
Transportation • Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km in 2002. • Most of the railway system belonged to the Federal Railroad Corporation RFFSA, which was privatized in 2007. The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina and Fortaleza.
Transportation • There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States. • São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world. With 13,728,000 passengers annually it ranks 80th worldwide.
São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport
Transportation • For freight transport waterways are of importance, e.g. the industrial zones of Manaus can only be reached by means of the Solimões- Amazonas waterway (3250 km with 6 meters minimum depth).
Health • The Brazilian public health system, the National Health System (SUS), is managed and provided by all levels of government. The public health services are universal and available to all citizens of the country for free. However, 45.5 million Brazilians have contracted a private health plan.
Health • • • • • According to the Brazilian Government, the most serious health problems are: Childhood mortality: about 2.51% of childhood mortality, reaching 3.77% in the northeast region. Motherhood mortality: about 73.1 deaths per 100,000 born children in 2002. Mortality by non-transmissible illness: 151.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants caused by heart and circulatory diseases, along with 72.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants caused by cancer. Mortality caused by external causes (transportation, violence and suicide): 71.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants (14.9% of all deaths in the country), reaching 82.3 deaths in the southeast region.
Education • The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Federal Government, States, Federal District and municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems. Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources. • According to the IBGE, in 2011, the literacy rate of the population was 90.4%, meaning that 13 million (9.6% of population) people are still illiterate in the country.
Communication • • The Brazilian press has its beginnings in 1808 with the arrival of the Portuguese royal family to Brazil, hitherto forbidden any activity of the press - was the publication of newspapers or books. The Brazilian press was officially born in Rio de Janeiro on 13 May 1808, with the creation of the Royal Printing, National Press by the Prince Regent Dom João. The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, the first newspaper published in the country, begins to circulate on 10 September 1808. Largest newspapers nowadays are Folha de São Paulo (from the state of São Paulo, daily circulation of 297.650), Super Notícia (Minas Gerias 296.799), O Globo (RJ 277.876) and O Estado de São Paulo.
Communication • Radio broadcasting began on 7 September 1922, with a speech by then President Pessoa, and formalized on 20 April 1923 with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro." • Television in Brazil began officially on 18 September 1950, with the founding of TV Tupi by Assis Chateaubriand. Since then television has grown in the country, creating large public networks such as Globo,SBT,Record and Bandeirantes. Today is the most important factor in popular culture of Brazilian society, indicated by research showing that as much as 67% of the general population follow the same daily soap opera broadcast.
Non-verbal Communication in Brazil Culture
Demographics • The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million(22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 83.75% of the population defined as urban. • The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.
Demographics • The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and recorded a population of 9,930,478. From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived. Brazil’s population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, because of a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. • In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years and to 72.6 years in 2007. It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950 and 1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050 thus completing the demographic transition.
Race and Ethnicity • According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Brown (Multiracial), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian (officially called indígena, Indigenous), while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race
Religion • Religion in Brazil formed from the meeting of the Roman Catholic Church with the religious traditions of African slaves and indigenous peoples. This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Roman Catholicism, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities, and in some instances, Allan Kardec's Spiritism (most Brazilian Spiritists are also Christians). Religious pluralism increased during the 20th century, and a Protestant community has grown to include over 15% of the population. The most common Protestant denominations are Pentecostal, Evangelical, Baptist, Seventh-day Adventist, Lutheran and the reformed churches.
Urbanization • The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte — all in the Southeastern Region
Language • The official language of Brazil is Portuguese (Article 13 of the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil), which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. • Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.
Culture • The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese empire. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles. • The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions. • Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European as well Japanese and Arab immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil.
Culture • The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion. • Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century) to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism. • Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim in recent years.
Rio Carnival • • The Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro is a world famous festival held before Lent every year and considered the biggest carnaval in the world with two million people per day on the streets. The first festivals of Rio date back to 1723. One of the many main purposes of the Rio carnival parade is for samba schools to compete with fellow rival... not (they are called cosisters) samba-schools; this competition is the climax of the whole carnival festival in this city, related to the samba-schools environment. Each school chooses a theme to try and portray in their entry. The samba schools work to build the best floats,costumes, lyrics, aesthetics, to represent their themes ( in Carnival terminology called "enredo"), and to include the best music they can from their drumming band called the bateria. There are many parts to each school's entry including the six to eight floats and up to 4,000 ( four thousand ) revelers per Samba-school of the so-called Special group.
Music • The music of Brazil was formed mainly from the fusion of European and African elements. Until the nineteenth century Portugal was the gateway to most of the influences that built Brazilian music, although many of these elements were not of Portuguese origin, but generally European. • The first was José Maurício Nunes Garcia, author of sacred pieces with influence of Viennese classicism.
Music • The major contribution of the African element was the rhythmic diversity and some dances and instruments that had a bigger role in the development of popular music and folk, flourishing especially in the twentieth century. The indigenous hardly left their traces in the mainstream, except in some genres of folklore. • Popular music since the late eighteenth century began to show signs of forming a characteristically Brazilian sound, with samba considered the most typical and on the UNESCO cultural heritage list.
Literature • • • Brazilian literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and natives that amazed Europeans that arrived in Brazil. Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism — novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and José de Alencar wrote novels about love and pain. The Brazilian Modernism, evidenced by the Week of Modern Art in 1922, was concerned with a nationalist avant-garde literature,while Post-Modernism brought a generation of distinct poets like João Cabral de Melo Neto, Carlos Drummond de Andrade and Vinicius de Moraes and internationally known writers dealing with universal and regional subjects like Jorge Amado, João Guimarães Rosa and Clarice Lispector.
Cuisine • Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences. • Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as vatapá, moqueca, polenta and acarajé.
Cuisine • Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with a guava jam known as goiabada). • Peanut is used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-demoleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice cream.
Cuisine • • • Popular snacks are pastel (a pastry), coxinha (chicken croquete), pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca), pamonha (corn and milk paste), esfirra (Lebanese pastry), kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine), empanada (pastry) and empada little salt pies filled with shrimps or hearth of palm. But the everyday meal consist mostly of rice and beans with beef and salad. Its common to mix it with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants. The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha.
About Brazilian Coffee Brazil is a coffee giant . As Frank Sinatra sang, "They grow an awful lot of coffee in Brazil". It's the largest producer of low grade arabica coffee, and a lot of Conilon robusta too. Brazil: there is some in almost every espresso you drink. In fact, some espresso is 90% Brazil. And there is Brazil in most canned coffee and big roasters' blends.
Sports • • • The most popular sport in Brazil is football. The Brazilian national football team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a record five times. Volleyball, basketball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. Brazil men's national volleyball team, for example, currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand Champions Cup, World Championship and the World Cup. Others sports practiced in Brazil are tennis, team handball, swimming, and gymnastics have found a growing number of enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football, futsal (indoor football) and footvolley emerged in Brazil as variations of football.
Pele Pele is considered one of or the greatest football player in the world. He was Brazilian scored 1281 goals in his carer He was notice when he was 11.Played professional at 15.Went to national at 16.And won his first world cup at 17.
Sports • • • In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira, Vale tudo, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One world championship eight times. Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, like the 1950 FIFA World Cup and has been chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil. São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007. On 2 October 2009, Rio de Janeiro was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games and 2016 Paralympic Games, the first to be held in South America and second in Latin America after Mexico City. Further, the country hosted the FIBA Basketball World Cups in 1954 and 1963. At the 1963 event, the Brazil national basketball team won one of its two world championship titles.
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Brazil, Ein Film von Terry Gilliam mit Jonathan Pryce, Robert De Niro. Übersicht und Filmkritik. In einem von vorne bis hinten durchstrukturierten und ...
One of the world's most captivating places, Brazil is a country of powdery white-sand beaches, verdant rainforests and wild, rhythm-filled...
Alle Infos zum Film Brazil (1985): Nach Ex-Monty-Python-Mitglied Terry Gilliams Vorstellung ist die Welt von morgen ein dystopischer und...
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