Published on February 19, 2014
Brand Associations Akash C.Mathapati Asst Professor – Marketing Area Kirloskar Institute of Advanced Management Studies firstname.lastname@example.org
Associations, Image & Positioning Akash C.Mathapati
• Positioning is closely related to the association and image concepts except that it implies a frame of reference, the reference point usually being competition Akash C.Mathapati
The Value of Brand Associations Help Process/Retrieve Help Process/Retrieve Information Information Differentiate/Position Differentiate/Position Associations Associations Reason-to-Buy Reason-to-Buy Create Positive Create Positive Attitudes/Feelings Attitudes/Feelings Basis for Extensions Basis for Extensions Akash C.Mathapati
Types of Associations • What does these brands mean to you ? Akash C.Mathapati
Types of Associations • Product Attribute – Most used positioning strategy is to associate an object with a product attribute or characteristic – Positioning problem is usually to find an attribute important to a major segment & not already claimed by a competitor Akash C.Mathapati
• Intangibles – Companies love to make brand comparisons • Problems with such specmanship – Brand position based upon a specification is vulnerable to innovation – When firms start a specification shouting match, they all eventually lose credibility – People do not always make decisions based upon a particular specification anyway Akash C.Mathapati
• Regis McKenna, an advisor to silicon valley firms – “intangible factors are more effective associations to develop than specific attributes.” – Perceived quality, technological leadership, perceived value or healthy food Akash C.Mathapati
Customer Benefits • Most product attributes provide customer benefits, there usually is a 1 to 1 correspondence (crest, BMW) • A rational benefit is closely linked to a product attribute and would be part of a “rational” decision process • A psychological benefit, often extremely consequential in the attitude-formation process, relates to what feelings are engendered when buying and/or using the brand (e.g., Avanti) Akash C.Mathapati
Relative Pricing • Relative price, is so useful & pervasive that it is appropriate to consider it separately. In some product classes there are 5 well-developed price levels – Saks fifth avenue, Neiman Marcus, Bloomingdale’s – Macy’s, Robinson’s, Bullocks, Dayton’s etc – Sears, Montogomery Ward, j.C Penney – K Mart Akash C.Mathapati
• Positioning with respect to relative price can be complex. The brand usually needs to be clearly in only one of the price categories • The job then is to position its offering away from others at the same price point Akash C.Mathapati
Use/Application • Associate the application brand with – Reach out and touch some one Akash C.Mathapati use or
User/Customer • Associate a brand with a type of product user or customer • User positioning strategy is effective because it can match positioning with a segmentation strategy • Identifying a brand with its segment often is a good way to appeal to that segment – Cadbury – adult soft drink market Akash C.Mathapati
Celebrity/Person • Linking a celeb with a brand can transfer those associations to the brand • One characteristic important for a brand to develop & manufacture a product Akash C.Mathapati
Life-Styles/Personality • Every person, of course possesses a personality and a life style that is rich, complex & vivid and distinctive as well Akash C.Mathapati
Product Class • Some brands need to make critical positioning decisions that involve productclass associations – 7 up, maxim freeze-dried coffee Akash C.Mathapati
competitors • Positioning strategies, the frame of reference, whether explicit or implicit, is one or more competitors • It is useful to consider positioning with respect to a competitor for two reasons – The competitor may have a firm, wellcrystallized image, developed over many years, which can be used as a bridge to help communicate another image referenced to it Akash C.Mathapati
– Sometimes it is not important how good customers think you are; it is just important that they believe you are better than a given competitor • Positioning with respect to a competitor can be an excellent way to create a position with respect to a product characteristic, especially price quality Akash C.Mathapati
Creating Associations • Identifying and managing signals – Customers often discount or disbelieve factual information – They cope by using signals or indicators, one attribute or association can imply others – E.g., healthy cereal, caterpillar Akash C.Mathapati
Providing credibility in the HighTech World • Ben Rosen (Sevin Rosen Funds) – Compaq, Lotus • Having alliance Akash C.Mathapati
Understanding Unanticipated Signals • Millers diet beer failed because of perceived taste problems – Associations with low calorie, diet products was avoided • Pringles Akash C.Mathapati
The Role of Promotions • Strengthening Associations & Brand Awareness – – – – Leather Strapped luggage tags – Amex Terrycloth robe – Polo Cologne Belts, Handbags – Levi’s Outdoor Gear & 2 mountain bike – Jeep Akash C.Mathapati
Role of Publicity • Creating associations and recognition need not to be expensive • Advertising sometimes is extremely difficult and expensive because it lacks both credibility & interest value Akash C.Mathapati
Involving the Customer Akash C.Mathapati
Changing Associations • Changing associations (repositioning) often is a delicate job because of the existing associations Akash C.Mathapati
Maintaining Associations • Be consistent over time – Changing associations is wasteful when associations that have been nurtured over a long time-period are allowed to dissipate when a new association is emphasized • Be consistent over elements of the marketing program – E.g., E.J Korvette, a pioneer discounter (Eugene Ferfauf, 1948) Akash C.Mathapati
Managing Disasters • • • • Suzuki Samurai Tylenol Nestle AT&T Akash C.Mathapati
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