Brain Tumours

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Information about Brain Tumours

Published on November 4, 2007

Author: docs

Source: slideshare.net

BRAIN TUMOURS NEW STAFF DAYS April 29 th 2005

BRAIN TUMOURS Brain tumours are the most common solid tumour in children. About 300 new cases are diagnosed each year. We see about 30 – 40 new cases a year.

Brain tumours are the most common solid tumour in children.

About 300 new cases are diagnosed each year. We see about 30 – 40 new cases a year.

4 Main Types Of Tumours Found In Children Astrocytoma Ependomoma PNET Craniopharingyoma

Astrocytoma

Ependomoma

PNET

Craniopharingyoma

Brain Cells Brain cells are made up of two main types of cells NEURONES – nerve cells GLIAL – supporting cells and structures

Brain cells are made up of two main types of cells

NEURONES – nerve cells

GLIAL – supporting cells and structures

Glial Cells 3 main types of glial cell giving 3 types of tumour - Astrocytes – Astrocytomas Ependyma - Ependomoma Oligodendracytes - Oligodendroglioma

3 main types of glial cell giving 3 types of tumour -

Astrocytes – Astrocytomas

Ependyma - Ependomoma

Oligodendracytes - Oligodendroglioma

Tumour Grading Most tumours – all types are graded 1- 4 (benign – malignant). Grading takes in tendency to spread, growth rate and similarity to normal cells.

Most tumours – all types are graded 1- 4 (benign – malignant).

Grading takes in tendency to spread, growth rate and similarity to normal cells.

Astrocytoma Astrocytoma’s grow from astrocytes, a star shaped cell found throughout the brain. Therefore the tumours can be found all over the brain, supra and infra-tentorial, and the spinal column.

Astrocytomas Low grade astrocytomas include Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma - Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. These tumours would be treated with surgery and follow up scans.

Low grade astrocytomas include

Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma

- Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.

These tumours would be treated with surgery and follow up scans.

Astrocytoma High grade tumours include. Anaplastic astrocytoma. Glioblastoma multiforme. These invade local tissue and are much harder to excise. They would be treated with surgery and follow up radiation and/or chemotherapy.

High grade tumours include.

Anaplastic astrocytoma.

Glioblastoma multiforme.

These invade local tissue and are much harder to excise.

They would be treated with surgery and follow up radiation and/or chemotherapy.

Ependymoma Growing from the ependymal cells found lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. Low grade – subependymoma (4 th ventricle) High grade – anaplastic ependymoma Treatment – surgery and radiation

Growing from the ependymal cells found lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord.

Low grade – subependymoma (4 th ventricle)

High grade – anaplastic ependymoma

Treatment – surgery and radiation

PNET ( PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOUR) They develop from primitive underdeveloped cells left over from foetal development. All these tumours are all highly malignant they are also called Medulloblastoma Pineal tumours (pinealblastoma) Treatment is surgery followed by radiation. These tumours are very difficult to treat and cure.

They develop from primitive underdeveloped cells left over from foetal development.

All these tumours are all highly malignant they are also called

Medulloblastoma

Pineal tumours (pinealblastoma)

Treatment is surgery followed by radiation. These tumours are very difficult to treat and cure.

Craniopharingyoma These are benign, cystic tumours often involving the 3 rd ventricle, optic nerve and pituitary gland. Leading to diabetes insipidus and long term hormone problems.

These are benign, cystic tumours often involving the 3 rd ventricle, optic nerve and pituitary gland. Leading to diabetes insipidus and long term hormone problems.

Craniopharingyoma Treatment involves surgery followed by radiation and long term endocrinology involvement.

Treatment involves surgery followed by radiation and long term endocrinology involvement.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Post fossa tumours - Headaches and early morning vomiting (caused by hydrocephalus) - Papilloedema - Ataxia

Post fossa tumours

- Headaches and early morning

vomiting (caused by hydrocephalus)

- Papilloedema

- Ataxia

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Brain stem tumours - headaches and early morning vomiting - Ataxia - Dysphasia - Visual problems, squint, cross eyed

Brain stem tumours

- headaches and early morning

vomiting

- Ataxia

- Dysphasia

- Visual problems, squint, cross eyed

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Frontal tumours - Hemiplegia - Seizures - Defective memory - Personality changes

Frontal tumours

- Hemiplegia

- Seizures

- Defective memory

- Personality changes

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Parietal tumours - Seizures - Speech disturbances - Spatial disorders

Parietal tumours

- Seizures

- Speech disturbances

- Spatial disorders

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Occipital tumours - Seizures - Blindness in one direction Temporal tumours - Often silent -Occasional seizures

Occipital tumours

- Seizures

- Blindness in one direction

Temporal tumours

- Often silent

-Occasional seizures

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Spinal cord tumours - limb/back/neck pain - weakness of limb - Decrease in bladder/bowel control/function

Spinal cord tumours

- limb/back/neck pain

- weakness of limb

- Decrease in bladder/bowel

control/function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

? AND ANSWERS (HOPEFULLY)

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