Published on December 19, 2016
1. Methanol as a Fuel Status of International Research BP Presentation to NDRC Beijing May 16, 2006 Steve Wittrig/Scott Charpentier
2. 2 Outline • Methanol production technology and economics • Methanol engine technology • Issues associated with the use of methanol as a fuel (problem definition, risks and mitigation strategies) − Toxicity − Methanol/Gasoline blends − Methanol logistics and infrastructure cost − Biodegradability in the environment − Emissions and air pollution − Corrosiveness/Materials compatibility − Cold Start/Operability
3. Methanol production technology and economics
4. 4 BP’s Trinidad-Based Methanol Projects Lurgi Technology and Major Contractor • Titan Methanol Plant − 2500 tonnes/day (single train), largest in world at the time − Natural Gas Consumption:80 MMSCFD − Start up: Dec 1999 • Atlas Methanol Plant − First implementation of Lurgi megamethanol technology − 5000 tonnes/day (single train), currently largest in world − Natural Gas Consumption:160 MMSCFD − Start up: June 2004
5. 5 Methanol from Natural Gas • Megamethanol technology recently commercialized in Trinidad profitably produces methanol at $110 per tonne (using $1 / MMBTU gas) • $140 per tonne methanol from $2 / MMBTU gas (add $30 per tonne for additional $1 / MMBTU gas) • Technology breakthrough (20% lower cost than next best technology)
8. 8 Syngas/Methanol Synthesis Schematic • Show gas cooled reactor
9. 9 Atlas Methanol Plant
10. 10 Lurgi Combined Reforming Natural Gas Feed From NGC/BP Syngas Oxygen Steam Reformer Autothermal Reformer Air Separation Plant Methanol Synthesis Methanol Distillation Storage and Loading Methanol Exports Natural Gas Feed From NGC/BP Syngas Owned by Atlas Partners Oxygen Atlas Methanol Plant Steam Reformer Autothermal Reformer Air Separation Plant Methanol Synthesis Methanol Distillation Storage and Loading Methanol Exports Block Flow Diagram
11. 11 Syngas/Methanol Synthesis Schematic • Show gas cooled reactor Lurgi’s Combined Methanol Converter
12. 12 Cost breakdown- $/tonne Titan Atlas Capital cost 43.3 26.0 Fuel (gas $0.85/mmbtu) 27.3 27.3 Oxygen 7.3 8.3 Operating 19.3 18.0 − Critical factors − Choice of technology − Fuel costs − Economies of scale
13. 13 Next Generation Technology High Pressure POX (Another 10% lower cost?) • Lurgi’s Pure ATR – eliminate steam reformer − Lower capital costs − Lower CO2 emissions • Increased pressure to 80 bar − Eliminate compressors Demonstration plant for production of Syngas from Natural Gas, Liquid Hydrocarbons/Slurries at pressures up to 100 bar sponsored by BMWA, SMWK, mg technologies
14. 14 Methanol from Coal • BP is not expert on coal conversion or the costs to produce methanol from coal gasification. • Some of our colleagues in China tell us that methanol can be produced from coal at a cost of 800 – 1200 RMB per tonne. • We are interested to know more about the costs and processes used in China for producing methanol • If methanol can be produced in China for 1200 RMB per tonne, that is equivalent to gasoline at 1.5 RMB per litre. • We are interested to know if China will use this opportunity for transportation fuel made from coal in China.
15. 15 Life Cycle Energy Balance - Fuel Yield Methanol and Fischer Tropsch Diesel 5 Tonne Coal 2.5 Tonne Methanol 0.9 Tonne FT Liquids Equivalent to 0.3 Tonne Naphtha (not auto fuel) 1.1 Tonne Diesel Equivalent 0.6 Tonne FT Diesel Fischer Tropsch Methanol Divide by 2.3 for conversion
16. 16 Life Cycle Energy Balance - Fuel Yield Methanol and Fischer Tropsch Diesel 1 MM SCF Gas 29.9 Tonne Methanol 11.1 Tonne FT Liquids Equivalent to 3.6 Tonne Naphtha (not auto fuel) 13 Tonne Diesel Equivalent 7.5 Tonne FT Diesel Fischer Tropsch Methanol Divide by 2.3 for conversion
17. Methanol engine technology
18. 18 Engines and Autos for methanol fuel • Thousands of methanol flex fuel vehicles have been manufactured and sold in the West in the last 20 years • The technology exists to build consumer or commercial autos and trucks that efficiently and safely use methanol and methanol/gasoline blends as fuel • Engines that are designed and built specifically for methanol are probably not generally more costly than gasoline or diesel engines. The technology is very similar. There are some different materials that need to be specified for methanol service, but they are not generally more expensive materials. • The M85 FFV Ford Taurus sold in the US was $340 cheaper than the gasoline version. • Many companies and research entities have continued development of methanol fueled engines and there are modern prototype methanol engines that take advantage of methanol’s octane and vapor pressure characteristics to achieve very high engine efficiencies. • The potential relative cost of methanol fueled engines is an issue that can be estimated from work done over the last 20 years by engine designers such as FEV • The production of methanol fueled cars and buses could be a significant opportunity for Chinese auto companies.
19. 1.LevelPresentation © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing to third parties 19 FEV China in Dalian
20. 1.LevelPresentation © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing to third parties 1. Level_Company Profile / Faensen / 08.02.2005 20 FEV Company Profile LOCATIONS GERMANY Aachen Alsdorf Dalian CHINA Detroit USA Innovative Engine Engineering Company Working for Major Car and Engine Manufacturers Worldwide 1300 Employees Engineering Services and Products Engine and Powertrain Vehicle Integration, Application and Electronics Test Systems
21. 1.LevelPresentation © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing to third parties 1. Level_Complete Development and Product Range/ Perseke / 16.12.2003 21 Complete Development and Product Range End-of-Line Hot Test Facility Turn Key Installation Off-Tool Development Start Series Production SOP Pre-Series Development First Engines of Manufacturing Line Prototype Development First Engines Available CONCEPT Production
22. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties Alternative Fuels at FEV Engineering Services and Competence Methanol/ EthanolNatural Gas GTL/CTL/DME Hydrogen
23. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties Diesel and Diesel Blends Gasoline and Gasoline Blends Biodiesel (RME) GTL Fuels Methanol Spark ignition Hot surface ignition Ethanol CNG LPG Hydrogen Heavy Fuel Oil Diesel / Water Emulsion Experiences with different Fuels
24. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties 1.1 FEV Methanol-Activities Passenger Car Engines 1.9 l 4-Cyl DI HSI -66 kW@4000 rpm1.9 l 4-Cyl DI HSI -66 kW@4000 rpm 0.86 l 2-Cyl DI HSI -29 kW@4000 rpm 2.0 l 4-Cyl DI HSI -75 kW@4000 rpm 6.2 l 8-Cyl DI HSI -87 kW@3500 rpm 2.1 l 4-Cyl IDI HSI -66 KW@4200 rpm 2.2 l 4-Cyl IDI HSI -70 kW@4500 rpm 1.7 l 4-Cyl DI SI -60 kW@4000 rpm1.7 l 4-Cyl DI SI -60 kW@4000 rpm Heavy Duty Engines 12 l 6-Cyl DI HSI -230 kW@1500 rpm 7.6 l 6-Cyl DI HSI -157 kW@2600 rpm 9 l 6-Cyl 2-Stroke DI HSI -192 kW@2100 rpm 4.5 l 4-Cyl DI HSI -60 kW@2400 rpm durability criterias etc.) Achievable Full Load Range 38.5% 68% Rated Power: 66 kW (as function of emission targets, BMEP[bar] Engine Speed [ rpm ] Torque Multiplication Factor:
25. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties Methanol: Efficiency maps of methanol engines Methanol glow ignition engine Methanol spark ignition engine Engine rpm 1000 2000 40003000 1min− 42 41 40 38 36 33 30 25 20 10 [ ]%eη 37 36 35 34 32 30 25 20 10 1000 2000 40003000 4 8 16 12 0 Engine rpm 4 8 16 12 0 1min− [ ]%eη bar mep bar mep
26. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties Low heat value Larger pump capacity required Insufficient lubrication Common rail pump with oil sump Special injector design Higher wear Corrosion Special materials, coatings and sealings Cavitation in the fuel system DME is gaseous under atmospheric conditions Low pressure fuel system under pressure (5 bar at 20.6°C or 10 bar at 45.3°C) … Open Items regarding Methanol and DME Oxygenated Fuels Fig. 6
27. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties Electronically Controlled Multi-Fuel Inline Injection Pump 1.4
28. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties Methanol: Combustion process for internal mixture formation
29. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties E 6350 FEV-Methanol vehicle with direct injection UKA
30. Methanol Toxicity
31. 31 Toxicity of Methanol • Methanol is poisonous and should not be drunk • The lethal dose of methanol ranges from 25-90 ml, the lethal dose of gasoline in humans is approx. 400 ml (70 kg body), • There have been reported instances of pure methanol being intentionally mixed with drinks and poisoning people • One very effective strategy for preventing these problems is to add some gasoline or bitter additives (this is the strategy used for ethanol fuel as well). • Another strategy is for methanol to be used by professional drivers (such as bus fleets or taxi drivers or delivery vehicles) and only dispense it from a limited number of sites (e.g., 4-6 bus terminals in a city dispensing methanol for buses designed for methanol fuel).
32. Methanol/Gasoline Blends
33. 33 Phase separation and water problems • In low concentration blends, methanol/gasoline blends are not very stable in the presence of water. The gasoline and the methanol can separate if there is some moisture or water contamination. This is one of the primary problems caused by mixing a small amount of methanol with gasoline (M5 – M15). • It can cause problems in retail or distribution storage • It can cause problems in driveability of cars using blends. • The primary strategies for dealing with the problem are compatibilizer additives and special design and careful operation of storage and dispensing infrastructure to keep out water. • These problems with low fraction methanol/gasoline blends can be managed, but they do cause extra expense and require attention. • These problems are not particularly evident with M85 or not at all for M100. One way that China might effectively use methanol would be as M100 for city buses, taxis and delivery vehicles
34. Methanol Corrosiveness and Materials Compatibility
35. 35 Methanol Corrosiveness • Methanol has different chemical characteristics than gasoline. It is not compatible with some elastomers and other materials (notably aluminum) that are commonly used in gasoline cars and distribution infrastructure. • If a car or a dispensing system is designed with the knowledge that it will be exposed to methanol, it is only a matter of proper material selection and design. • This problem leads to many of the problems that can occur with the use of methanol blends (such as M15) in automobiles that are not designed for methanol use. It is the main reason that auto companies object to unregulated blending of methanol into gasoline.
36. Methanol logistics and infrastructure cost
37. 37 Moving, storing and distributing methanol • Methanol is an item of commerce that is sold, shipped and stored around the world • BP is the largest buyer of methanol in the world (for our acetic acid business) • BP is part owner of the largest methanol plant in the world (Atlas in Trinidad) • BP has a lot of information and know-how on methanol shipping and handling • However, the major issues in the past for methanol as a fuel have been associated with methanol blends (M5 – M15) (Phase separation, water take- up and fuel quality and corrosiveness in systems not designed to handle methanol). • These are all issues that require attention and some cost to handle. There is significant experience in the world in how to design and operate systems to handle methanol/gasoline blends. BP can offer advice and guidance to China if desired
38. 38 CONCAWE/EUCAR study • Conventional fuels, bio-fuels, synthetics fuels (from gas, coal and biomass) and hydrogen • Assessment of future vehicle technologies • Based on European Resources and product infrastructure • Results - Life cycle costs, Energy efficiency and GHG emissions • Analysis of light duty market only • Methanol results based on 100% methanol for Fuel cell use. • Results are not directly applicable to China. But do show the type of analysis that needs to be done and demonstrates the potential of BP and Ford sponsored work at Tsinghua University with Zhang Aling’s group
39. 39 Economic analysis and Life cycle energy balance • EUCAR, CONCAWE and JRC have performed a joint evaluation of the Well-to-Wheels energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a wide range of potential future fuels and powertrain options. • 2005 Revision http://ies.jrc.cec.eu.int/wtw.html • Objectives − Establish, in a transparent and objective manner, a consensual well-to-wheels energy use and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions assessment of a wide range of automotive fuels and powertrains relevant to Europe in 2010 and beyond. − Consider the viability of each fuel pathway and estimate the associated macro-economic costs
40. 40 Incremental Well-to-Tank costs for coal derived fuels $25 / bbl Oil 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 F T diesel M ethan ol D M E Euro/GJ Production Distribution Refueling $50 / bbl Oil 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 F T diesel M ethan ol D M E Euro/GJ Production Distribution Refueling Incremental Vehicle Costs – DME 2995 Euro/unit (6.3 Euro/GJ), methanol 1990 Euro/unit (est) Methanol at $250/tonne Assume an extra 500,000 RMB for one retail station
41. 41 BP/Ford/Tsinghua University Programme • Replicate the CONCAWE/EUCAR study showing Economics, Energy Efficiency and GHG Emissions for a range of Chinese fuel options including methanol in gasoline vehicles and DME for diesel vehicles. • Primary resources – Oil, Naturals gas, coal, and renewables (biomass, solar, wind etc.) • 1 year programme • Completion due in June 2006
42. Methanol and the Environment
43. 43 Methanol and the environment • Ground Water and Spills − Methanol biodegrades very quickly in soil and water. − Methanol and water are the major components of windshield washer fluid around the world. All of the methanol used in this application end up in soil or water and quickly are consumed by natural bacteria. − Any cases of environmental damage or poisoning or toxic effects to humans caused by methanol spills or accidents are extremely rare, if ever (I’m not aware of any).
44. 44 Methanol and the environment Combustion emissions and air pollution − Methanol burns very cleanly and is generally a better fuel for air pollution than either gasoline or diesel − If methanol is used in poorly designed or tuned engines and without catalyst aftertreatment, the incomplete combustion of methanol can lead to somewhat elevated levels of formaldehyde. − This is reported to be about the same level or less of formaldehyde from diesel combustion. − The issue of formaldehyde emissions from methanol engines is well studied and there are well known solutions that can be applied to design and operation of methanol fueled cars.
45. 45 A study from the US Dept of Energy
46. Cold Start and Operability
47. 47 Cold Start • Methanol (and ethanol) have low vapor pressure in cold (e.g., -20 C) temperatures. This can cause problems with starting a methanol engine in a cold environment. • If methanol is used as M85 or M100 for city buses or taxi fleets, the vehicles will typically be started once a day, they can be parked in heated garages if the weather is very cold and they can be started and warmed up according to established procedures to solve this problem. • There are also straightforward engineering solutions to this problem for cars and buses that will operate in cold environments (just as there are for gasoline and diesel engines). One example is shown on the next slide.
48. AlternativeFuelsatFEV © by FEV – all rights reserved. Confidential – no passing on third parties Start-heating systems for Ethanol engines Cold-start system for Ethanol engine for 1.6 l with central injection Cold-start system for Ethanol engine for 2.0 l with multi-point injection To control unit Injection nozzle Fuel Fuel supply PTC - Heating part PTC - Heating element (120W) Air from idle actuator Cold-start injector