Bonding Teacher Note

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Information about Bonding Teacher Note
Education

Published on March 19, 2009

Author: jonesflyrod

Source: slideshare.net

 

The attraction between atoms in a molecule or crystalline structure When elements react atoms must collide

The attraction between atoms in a molecule or crystalline structure

When elements react atoms must collide

Bond that results when metal atoms release their valence electrons to a pool of electrons shared by all the metal atoms Holds metals together Results in high conductivity, malleability, and ductility

Bond that results when metal atoms release their valence electrons to a pool of electrons shared by all the metal atoms

Holds metals together

Results in high conductivity, malleability, and ductility

Composed of positively and negatively charged atoms Metals on left form compounds with nonmetals on right Form ionic bonds- a chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges

Composed of positively and negatively

charged atoms

Metals on left form compounds with nonmetals on right

Form ionic bonds- a chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges

EXAMPLE: NaCl

EXAMPLE: NaCl

 

Crystalline solids High melting and boiling points Shatter May be water soluble

Crystalline

solids

High melting and boiling points

Shatter

May be water soluble

Electrically neutral because same number of protons and electrons Gaining or losing 1 or more electrons, atom can be converted into charged particle called ion. Ion - an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge

Electrically neutral because same number of protons and electrons

Gaining or losing 1 or more electrons, atom can be converted into charged particle called ion.

Ion - an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge

Cations - positive ion, fewer electrons than protons, lose electrons Positive charge on a cation= number of electrons lost Ex. Neutral Mg atom loses 2 electrons  Mg 2+ ion Anions- negative ion, more electrons than protons, gain electrons negative charge on nonmetal anion equals the number of electrons gained Ex. S  gains 2 electrons, sulfide ion S 2-

Cations - positive ion, fewer electrons than protons, lose electrons

Positive charge on a cation= number of electrons lost

Ex. Neutral Mg atom loses 2 electrons  Mg 2+ ion

Anions- negative ion, more electrons than protons, gain electrons

negative charge on nonmetal anion equals the number of electrons gained

Ex. S  gains 2 electrons, sulfide ion S 2-

 

Charge on atom Group 1,2,3 A form charges equal to the group number (+1, +2, +3) Nonmetals 5, 6, 7 A have negative charge usually equal to 8 – A group # (-3, -2, -1)

Charge on atom

Group 1,2,3 A form charges equal to the group number (+1, +2, +3)

Nonmetals 5, 6, 7 A have negative charge usually equal to 8 – A group # (-3, -2, -1)

More than one stable ion Examples: Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ Cu + and Cu 2+ Many transition metals form 2 + ions.

More than one stable ion

Examples:

Fe 2+ and Fe 3+

Cu + and Cu 2+

Many transition metals form 2 + ions.

Octet rule : atoms become stable by having 8 electrons in their outer energy level except some of the smallest atoms which have only 2 Noble gases lack reactivity (stable)(8 electron) Elements stable by achieving configuration of valence electron of 1 of noble gases. (Share or transfer electrons) Main group metals react so have an electron configuration like the noble gas before them Main group nonmetals react so they have an electron configuration like that of the noble gas after them

Octet rule : atoms become stable by having 8 electrons in their outer energy level except some of the smallest atoms which have only 2

Noble gases lack reactivity (stable)(8 electron)

Elements stable by achieving configuration of valence electron of 1 of noble gases. (Share or transfer electrons)

Main group metals react so have an electron configuration like the noble gas before them

Main group nonmetals react so they have an electron configuration like that of the noble gas after them

 

Dots around atomic symbol represent the number of valence electrons Write electron dot for Radon (Rn), Lead (Pb), and Xenon (Xe)

Dots around atomic symbol represent the number of valence electrons

Write electron dot for Radon (Rn), Lead (Pb), and Xenon (Xe)

 

*How many electrons must be gained or lost to satisfy octet rule? Group 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A # Valence electrons # e- gained/ lost * Charge on stable ion

 

MUST BE ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL (0) Have the lowest possible number of each type of atom (Formula unit) Subscripts indicate number of ions Cations always written first and charges are not included!!

MUST BE ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL (0)

Have the lowest possible number of each type of atom (Formula unit)

Subscripts indicate number of ions

Cations always written first and charges are not included!!

Cation first, anion second Cation of Main Group elements Simply use the name of element it is formed from Ex: Na + , sodium ion Cation of Transition Metals Use name of the element it is formed from AND charge designated by a Roman Numeral in ( ) Ex: Fe 3+ , Fe (III) ion

Cation first, anion second

Cation of Main Group elements

Simply use the name of element it is formed from

Ex: Na + , sodium ion

Cation of Transition Metals

Use name of the element it is formed from AND charge designated by a Roman Numeral in ( )

Ex: Fe 3+ , Fe (III) ion

Anion Replace ending of name with _____________ Examples: fluoride, chloride, bromide oxide, sulfide, selenide, nitride, phosphide, arsenide Name the following ionic compounds: MgCl 2 FeF 3 LiBr ZnO Al 2 O 3 Na 2 S

Anion

Replace ending of name with _____________

Examples:

fluoride, chloride, bromide

oxide, sulfide, selenide, nitride, phosphide, arsenide

Name the following ionic compounds:

MgCl 2 FeF 3

LiBr ZnO

Al 2 O 3 Na 2 S

Table 3-8, p.96

Several atoms bound together that collectively have a charge: 3- Example: phosphate ion

Several atoms bound together that collectively have a charge:

 

Name the following ions: NO 3 - CN - OH -

Name the following ions:

NO 3 -

CN -

OH -

Write the formulas of the following ions: Phosphate ion Ammonium ion Permanganate ion

Write the formulas of the following ions:

Phosphate ion

Ammonium ion

Permanganate ion

Parentheses may be needed for polyatomic ions EXAMPLE: aluminum hydroxide ____________________ ammonium phosphate___________________ sodium sulfate_________________________

Parentheses may be needed for polyatomic ions

EXAMPLE:

aluminum hydroxide ____________________

ammonium phosphate___________________

sodium sulfate_________________________

p.95a

A Little Trick Magnesium phosphate

1. List Cation first, anion second Ex. NaCl NOT ClNa Don’t write charges of ions Ex. KF NOT K + F - Use parentheses around a polyatomic ion formula if it has a subscript Ex. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 NOT AL 2 SO 4 3

1. List Cation first, anion second

Ex. NaCl NOT ClNa

Don’t write charges of ions

Ex. KF NOT K + F -

Use parentheses around a polyatomic ion formula if it has a subscript

Ex. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 NOT AL 2 SO 4 3

Name the following compounds: CuO NaNO 3 NH 4 Cl

Name the following compounds:

CuO

NaNO 3

NH 4 Cl

Write formulas for the following compounds: Barium Hydroxide Copper (II) carbonate Magnesium bicarbonate

Write formulas for the following compounds:

Barium Hydroxide

Copper (II) carbonate

Magnesium bicarbonate

 

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