Published on February 19, 2014
Overview of Bokaro Steel Plant SUMAN SOURABH 06570104910 B.TECH(EEE) FINAL YEAR
BACKGROUND •Fourth Integrated Steel Plant in Public Sector,well known as Swadeshi Plant, maximum indigenisation in equipment,materials & know-how •Originally incorporated as a Limited Company on 29.01.64 •Collaboration agreement with Soviet Union (USSR) on 25 th Jan, 1965 ( SAIL Foundation Day) •After formation of SAIL on 24th January 1973, merged with SAIL on 01.05.78 •Collaboration with the then USSR •Total area 33,045.35 acres •Flat Product : HR Coil, HR Sheet, CR Coil, CR Sheet, TMBP, GP&GC
• Capacity – – – – F P irst hase : 1.7 M of ingot steel T Second P hase : 4.0 M of ingot steel T After modernization : 4.5 M of liquid steel T E nough scope for further expansion (P for 7 M ) lan T • M ilestones – – – – – – Start of construction : 06.04.68 Start of hot metal production : 02.10.72 Completion of 1.7 M stage : 26.02.78 T Completion of 4 M stage in phases T Start of last modernization : 23.07.93 (completed in 1997) Next modernization for 7 M : E T valuation P rocess started
Basic Information • Location • Latitude : Southern bank of ; approx. 50 kms from Dhanbad and 140 kms each from and : 230 39' • Longitude : 860 09' • Altitude : 210 metres (average) varying from 195 to 224 metres • Climate : Extreme • Annual Rainfall : Average 157 cms; Maximum 195 cms • Temperature : Maximum 48½0 Celsius : Min. 2½0 Celsius • Wind direction : South-West to North-East • Type of Soil : Loamy up to 1 to 2 metres, sandy soil below that • Total land area : 33,045.35 acres • • Plant, Slag-dump, Cooling : 17,208.01 acres Ponds, Ancillaries, Marshalling Yard Township(including Airstrip) : 10,114.53 acres Garga Reservoir : 3,886.87 acres • Railways • : 1,835.94 acres
UTILITIES & SERVICES WATER SUPPLY - GARGA DAM & TENUGHAT DAM DVC CHANDRAPURA - 200MVA (Contract) Bokaro Power Supply Co. Ltd. - 1 x 12 MW (back pressure) POWER SUPPLY 2 x 55 MW 3 x 60 MW Total Road length 392 Kms.
PROCESS FLOW Fluxes COKE OVEN BATTERIES Coking Coal SAIL Bokaro Iron Ore, Lime Stone & Dolomite Fines BF Coke Iron Ore Coke Breeze BF1 Sintering Plant 130T Con-1 Pig Casting Machine BF2 BF3 BF4 BF5 OHP Blast Furnace 130 T Con-2 130 T Con-3 130 T Con-4 130 T Con-5 Steel Melting Shop - 1 300 T Con-1 Continuous Casting Department 300 T Con-2 Steel Melting Shop - 2 HR Coil Soaking Pit Reheating Furnace Hot Strip Mill ll Slabbing Mill PL-II Tandem Mill-2 PL-I Tandem Mill-1 A N N E A L I N G HRCF DCR Mill HR PLATE / SHEET Galvanized Sheet Corrugation Line Hot Dip Galvanizing Line SPM 1 & 2 CRCF CR Coil CR Sheet Galvanized Sheet Shearing Line GP Coil Galvanized Corrugated & Plain Sheet
Commissioning dates and Capacity of Major Units Unit Date of Commissioning Agreement with UUSR Number Capacity (MT) Product 25 Jan, 1965 Coke Ovens Sep'72 – Dec'85 8 Batteries of 69 Ovens 3.48 BF Coke Sinter Plant Sep'72 – Dec'82 3 Machines of 252 m2 area 6.20 Skip sinter Blast Furnaces Oct'72 - Jun'85 5 furnaces of 2000 m3 volume 4.585 Hot Metal Steel Melting Shop I Jan'74 – Dec'78 5 LD converters of 130 T 2.20 Ingot Steel Steel Melting Shop II Jun'83 - Jan'85 2 LD Converters of 300 T 2.25 Liquid Steel Continuous Casting Sep'97 - Mar'98 2 Double Strand casting m/c 2.16 Cast Slab
Commissioning dates and Capacity of Major Units Unit Date of Commissioning Number Capacity (MT) Product Slabbing Mill Dec'74 8X4 Soaking pits of 160 T & one 1250 mm universal Slabbing Mill 1.90 Rolled slab Hot Strip Mill Dec'75 4 reheating Furnaces, 5 roughing & 7 finishing stands 3.36 HR Coil Hot Rolled Coil Finishing Jan'76 2 Shearing line 1.1 HR Plate/Sheet Cold Rolling Mill 1 Jun'77 Pickling Lines, Tandem Mills Cold Rolling Mill 2 Sep'91 Annealing Lines, Skin Pass Mills-2, Temper/DCR Mill-1, Shearing lines-5, Slitting lines-3 & Hot Dip Galvanising Complex -1 Saleable CR 1.66 Product CR coils/Slit coil/ sheet, slit coil, Black Plate, GP&GC
Raw Materials coming from Mines
Wagon Tippler – Tippling a wagon
ORE HANDLING PLANT(RMHP) Basic functions: Receive different raw materials from various mines through wagons and their unloading & stacking with the help of tipplers & stackers Blend raw material by making layers in beds & cross sectionwise cutting beds by re-claimer Keep buffer stock to take care of irregularities and supply raw materials to different Units as per their requirements Basic facilities: 4 Rotary W agon Tipplers - 20 Wagons/Hr each 7 Twin boom Stackers - 1200 T/Hr each 5 Barrel Type Reclaimers - 1000 T/Hr each 1 Bucket Wheel Type Reclaimer - 500 T/Hr 2 Transfer Cars, 10 Shuttle Conveyors, 11 Cranes, 8 Telphers
Sources of R Material aw Material No. of Beds (240 M) Stock No of Days Source Iron Ore Lump 4 24 Kiriburu, Meghataburu, Bolani, Barsua Iron Ore Fines 6 16 Kiriburu, Meghataburu, Bolani, Gua Lime Stone BF Grade 4 13 Bhawanathpur, Khanabanjari, Purnapani Lime Stone SMS Grade 2½ 21 Kuteshwar, Jaisalmer, Nanwara Dolomite Lump 16 Bhawanathpur Birmitrapur, Tulsidamar, Sonakhand Dolomite Chips 50 Bhutan, Salwari
Sources of R Material aw Material Manganese Ore No. of Beds (240 M) Stock No of Days ½ Barbil, Banspani Imported Coal Prime Coking Coal Medium Coking Coal Coal Middlings for Power Plant 38 M high, 12mm dia Source Autralia, NewZealand , Haldia, Paradeep, Vizag 46 Dugda, Munidih, Jamadoba, Belatand Silos 2500T Kathara, Kedla, Rajrappa, Mahuda, Swang 7 Kathara, Rajrappa, Kedla, Swang, Giddi, West Bokaro, Kargali, Mahuda, Dugda, Katrasgarh etc.
Coke Oven Battery
Quenching of Coke
Coke Ovens • • • • • 8B atteries of 5 met er height , 69 Ovens each The pr ocess of coke making consist s of dest r uct ive dist illat ion of coal in absence of air . The phenomenon is called high t emper at ur e (above 1200 0c -1300 0c carbonisation of coal Volat ile mat t er s ar e dr iven out leaving behind t he r esidue called COK E B P y- roduct P lant: - Gas Condensat e Sect ion - Ammonium Sulphat e Plant Benzol Recover y Plant Tar Dist illat ion Plant Sulphur ic Acid Plant Desired Analysis vs Indian Coals: Desired Analysis Indian Coals Imported Coals Ash% < 16 19-24 3-12 (Av 9) Volatile Matters % > 25 24-26 19-28 (Av 23) Moisture% 7-9 7-8 8-11 (Av 9) Sulphur% < 0.05 0.56 < 0.05 Phosphorus% < 0.05 0.09 < 0.05
Material Flow Diagram : Coal & Coke Coking Coal From Various Source Wagons Coke Sorting Plant Blast Furnace Coke + 25 -80 mm Blast Furnace Coal Handling Plant Coke Nut Coke Coke Breeze -15 mm Sold Sinter Plant Battery ( 8 Nos.) Coke Oven Gas By Product Plant
By-Product Plant It consists of : • Gas Condensate Section • Ammonium Sulphate Plant • Benzol Recovery Plant • Tar Distillation Plant • Sulphuric Acid Plant Products produced from by product plant. • • • • • • • • • • • N G Benzol N G Toluene Xylene L S Naptha S B Oil PCM Road Tar Coal tar wash oil Extra hard pitch Hard medium pitch Hot Pressed naphthalene All by products of By Product Plant are sold through e- auction.
Tech-economic factors CO Gas yield : 325.0 Nm3 / TDC : 505.0 Kg / THM Sp. Heat Consumption : 0.583 Gcal / TDC Sp. Power consumption : 29.50 KWh /Ton of BF Coke Ammonium Sulphate yield : 10.50 Kg/ TDC Crude Tar yield : 30.80 Kg/ TDC Coke Rate ---
A view of Sinter belt
Sintering Plant • 3 Sinter Machines: Capacity 6.25 million tonnes per annum • Sintering is the process where incipient fusion takes place by combustion of Coke within moving bed of loosely packed fines of mainly Iron ore, Coke & Flux so as to agglomerate into a compact porous mass called Sinter • 75-80% Sinter is being used in the burden of BF • Area of each Siter belt is 252 sq.m. • Productivity of Sintering Band : 1.2 T/M2/hr • Three Sections a) Raw Material Section b) Stock Bin & Proportioning Section c) Sinter Machine Section
Hot Rolling Mill Refractory Mat Plant Mill Scale Lime Dust Coarse Waste Bins Section Ore Handling Plant Iron OreFines, LimeStone,Dolomite, Lime Dust Sand Raw Mat Section Fine LimeStone Fine ,Coke Fine, Dolomite Fine Mill Scale, Flue Dust, Lime Dust Coarse Coke Breeze Slime Thickening Section Lime Sludge Stock Bins Mixed Raw Charge Material Flow Diagram Sintering Plant Palletizing/Balling Drums Cleaned Water Raw Charge (Moist & Balle) Sinter Machine Building Sinter Hot Sinter Return Blast Furnace Deptt Flue dust to waste bin Coke Ovens Return Sinter to Stock Bin Cold Sinter Return Raw material sinter Screened coke return to raw material section
Technical Specifications of some critical equipments Sl.no Name 01 Hammer crushers 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Coke crusher Flux Screen Sinter Machine Sinter area Pallets Vacuum chambers Exhausters Quantity 05 Capacity 250 ton/hour 08 10 03 252 square metre 130 in each m/c 26 in each m/c 6nos(2nos/m/c) Installation Area Raw material 16 ton/hour 150 ton/hour 300-450 ton/hour Raw material Raw material M/c building M/c building M/c building M/c building M/c building 12000 m3/minute Technical Specifications of some critical equipments Sl.no Parameters Norms Actual in 2007-08 01 Specific fines consumption 1093kg/t of hot metal 1025kg/THM 02 Specific flux consumption 255 kg/THM 244kg/THM 03 Specific Coke consumption 85 kg/THM 86kg/THM 04 Specific Power consumption 45KWH/Tgross sinter 48.33KWH/TGS 05 Specific Heat consumption 0.024Gcal/TGS 0.025Gcal/TGS
A view of Blast Furnace
A Closer view of Blast Furnace
Blast Furnace • The iron oxide of ore and sinter is reduced to iron with the help of carbon monoxide & Coke • Functions of coke in BF are manifold. It provides strong porous bed to burden and supplies the heat load. Part of the heat load is supplied by the hot air blast • 5 Furnaces each of 2000 cubic meter useful volume and 2640T/day HM capacity • All furnaces have Bell-less Top charging System for continuous charging & better distribution of charge • Coal Dust Injection in Fce.# 4 & 5 • CHSGP in Fce. # 4 & 5 • Capacity of B F 4.585 MT of Hot Metal per annum • Hot Metal Temperature 1460-14800C • BF Productivity: 1.4 T/m3/Day • Coke Rate 520 Kg/THM
MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BLAST FURNACE Iron Ore Lime Stone Mn Ore Sintering Plant Flue Dust Dust catcher In BF Quartzite Raw BF gas Sinter Coke Partially Cleaned BF Gas Gas Cleaning Blast Furnace Plant Process Steam Cleaned BF Gas Hot air For Distribution For Sale Charging Section of Blast Furnace Cold Pig Pig Casting M/C Mixer of SMS IMF Hot Metal Iron Ore (Lump) RM Lime Stone, Mn Ore, Quartzite Sinter & MHP SP Coke Coke Ovens Process Steam Net work Stove of BF Cold air TBS Slag Slag Dump Yard BFCHSG /SGP Slag Granules for Sale
Hot Metal being charged into the converter
BF HOT METAL SSD SCRAP RMP LIME BMS IRON Ore, BAUXITE, Mn Ore, Lime Stone FAS O2 Plant Fe-Mn, Fe-Si 99.5 % pure O2
Steel Melting Shop • SMS-I: 5 Converters each of 100/130T capacity, 2 Mixers each of 1300 T capacity (Rated Capacity 2.5 MT/Yr) • SMS-II: 2 Converters each of 300 T capacity, 2 Mixers each of 2500 T capacity (Rated Capacity 2.25 MT/Yr) • Total capacity 4.5 MT of liquid steel • Oxygen of high purity(99.9 %) is blown into the converter from the top through water cooled lance so as to remove the impurity of hot metal through oxidation • Impurities of Si, C & P are oxidised and Forms slag with lime • Killed, Semi-killed and Rimming steels are made • SMS-II has got suppresed consumption system • Lining life : SMS-I = 800 – 1000 heats SMS-II = 2000 – 2500 heats
Concast Slab coming out of Caster
Continuous Casting Shop • • • • • • • • • Two Twin strand curvilinear casters with capacity to produce 2.16 MT of Slabs Steel Refining Unit (SRU) with LF/LRS for treatment of steel before casting On-line slab cutting Steel Killed with Al/Si to O2<5ppm + Argon purging sulphur reduced <0.015% Slab size : Thickness 200, 225 & 250 mm Width 950-1850 mm Length 9-10.5 mtr. MgO lined Tundish of 50 T capacity Tundish Capacity = 50 T Slide Gate System Slab Produced Mild Steel : DD, EDD, Bioler Plate etc. Low Alloy Steel : LPG, WTCR, SAILCOR & API grades
Slabbing Mill 12 groups of Soaking pits with each group having 4 pits ; total 48 pits wherein ingot are heated to a temperature above 13000C • On line hot & cold scarfing M/c for surface scale/defect removal • One 1250 mm Roll dia 2-high Reversible Universal Mill to produce slabs of thickness 150-300 mm, width 950-1850 mm and length 2.5 – 10.5 mtr. • 2800 Ton Hydraulic Shear (6 cuts/min) • 4MT Capacity (Rolling Rate 600-800T/Hr) • Main Sections a) Ingot Storage Yard b) Soaking Pit C) Mill Proper d) Slab Storage Yard •
Reheating Furnace of HSM
Strip Coming out of Finishing stands
Hot Strip Mill • Hot Rolling involves plastic deformation of a metal under squeezing force (a pair of Rolls) above its re-crystallization temperature. • This mill is designed to roll thin & wide strips for use in various industries such as wagon building, tube & pipe industry, drum & furniture manufacturing and further rolling in Cold Rolling Mill • 3 Walking Beam Reheating Furnaces & 1 Pusher type furnace • Vertical Scale Breaker • 5 Roughing Stands, 7 Finishing Stands • Hydraulic AGC in last four Strands
• 4 Hydraulic Coilers with automatic strapping & Robot marking • Capacity: 3.955 MT of HR Coils • Coil Dimensions – Strip thickness 1.6 to 16.0 mm – Strip Width 910 to 1,850 mm – Coil inside dia 650 mm – Max Coil outside dia 2,300 mm – Max coil weight 32 T • Rolling Speed: 20 m/sec Max.
Material Flow Diagram of HSM Slab yard Furn aces Roughing Stands Coilers Finishing Stands F6 R5 F7 C R4 F8 C R3 F9 C R2 F10 C R1 F. Shear F11 VSB F12 Furn aces
Hot Roll Coil Finishing (HRCF) •Functions : To shear the coils into plates and sheets •Facilities : •Shearing Line I : 5-10x1800 mm, 2.5-12 mtr. plates capacity 6,45,000 T/year •Shearing Line II : 1.6-4x1500 mm, 1.5-4.5 mtr length sheets capacity 4,75,000 T/year •Slitting Line : 1.5x8x1800 mm, 150mm Min. width capacity 4,00,000 T/year •Maximum Pkt. Wt.: 15 T
5-Stand Tandem Mill
Zinc coating on Cold Rolled Coil - HDGL
Cold Rolling Mills • • • • • • Cold rolling is done to produce thinner gauge strip of smooth finish with better mechanical properties than those obtained by Hot Rolling Uses : Automobile Bodies, Steel Furniture, Drum & Barrels, bending and shaping applications. Capacity: 1.66 MT of CR saleable CRM I: H2So4 Pickling Line, 4-Stand Tandem Mill (2-4.5mm thick into 0.63-2mm thick) Annealing Furnaces, SPM-I & SPM-II, Shearing Line I & II, Slitting Line and Shipping-I CRM II: HCl Pickling Line, 5-stand Tandem Mill (1.4-2mm thick into 0.63-1.6mm thick) , ECL, CAL, DCR Mill, HDGL and Shipping-II Besides Continuous Annealing furnace103 Annealing Furnaces and 230 Bases are available in three areas. Annealing is done at 680-720 0C in inert atmosphere (95% N2+5%H2) with the help of mixed Gas of 1550-1600 CV
Ancillary Development • Bokaro Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA) – 253 SSI Units registered with BSL – 81 accepted as Ancillary Units • Various Concessions/Exemptions in – Tender cost, earnest money, security deposit etc. – Price matching and purchase preference – BSL Laboratories offers testing facilities, help in developing new designs and products and awareness on ISO 9000 System
• Last Moder nizat ion – Con- cast f acilities integrated with SMS- II • Ladle Fur nace & Ladle Rinsing St at ion f or Secondar y Ref ining • Two Double St r and Slab Cast er – Up- gradation of Hot Strip Mill including • Change of Pusher Type Reheat ing Fur naces t o Walking Beam Type • Quick Wor k Roll Change Syst em • Addit ion of f our t h Coiler • Next Phase Moder nizat ion (by 2010-11) – New SMS- III with 3. 8 MT Capacity • 3 x 160T Conver t er s wit h 3 x 160T Ladle Fur naces & Degassing f acilit ies • 2 Single St r and Thin Slab Cast er s (1.2 MT each) & 1 convent ional Slab Cast er (1.4 MT) • 7- St and Compact St r ip Mill & new Coil Yar d – New CR III with 1. 2 MT Capacity M- • Coupled Pickling and Tandem Mill • ECL, Bell Annealing Fur nace (100% Galvanizing Line wit h Galvanneal f acilit ies Hydr ogen Annealing)
• Up gradation of 3 BF to 4900T/day capacity by enhancing volume from 2000 to 2365 M3 and installing CDI & CHSGin all BFs (presently 4&5 only) • Sintering Area 252 m2 to 312m2 and productivity 1.2T/m2/hr • Rebuilding of 3 CO batteries, computerised combination control system etc. • Conversion of H2S04 PL-I to HCL Pickling Line • Enhancing capacity of SMS – II from 2.16 to 3.12 MT by schemes • Addition of O2 generating capacities
Result of Expansion Sl. No. Description Capacity 1. Hot Metal (MT) 7.44 2. Crude Steel (MT) 7.00 3. Saleable Steel (MT) 6.53 4. Yield of Saleable Steel from Liquid Steel (%) 91.4 5. Specific Energy consumption (Gkcal) 5.5 6. Coke rate Kg/THM 395
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