Bohr Diagrams

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Information about Bohr Diagrams

Published on March 27, 2008

Author: profpaul

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A step by step program for creating Bohr Diagrams and Electron dot structures. Usefule for Index Cards and Flash cards for chemistry and physical science students Grades 9-12 or freshman college

Modeling and Representing Atoms on Paper How to draw Bohr Diagrams and Electron Dot Diagrams (sometimes called Lewis Structures)

Bohr Diagrams Pictographic representation of an Atom Shows information about the nucleus Electron energy levels Good for index cards and flash cards

Pictographic representation of an Atom

Shows information about the nucleus

Electron energy levels

Good for index cards and flash cards

Start with a rectangle about 2” x 4” Bohr Diagrams

Start with a rectangle about 2” x 4”

At the top write the name, Atomic number, Mass number of the element and the atomic mass Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu

At the top write the name, Atomic number, Mass number of the element and the atomic mass

Draw a small circle below the text that will represent the nucleus of the atom Bohr Diagrams In the circle write: the elemental symbol the number of Protons the number of Neutrons Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu C 6p + 6n 0

Draw a small circle below the text that will represent the nucleus of the atom

In the circle write:

the elemental symbol

the number of Protons

the number of Neutrons

Draw a larger circle around the nucleus circle to represent the first energy level for electrons Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu Add more circles outside to include all of the energy levels you need for the atom. (Hint: In what period is the element?) Carbon is in Period two and therefore needs two energy levels C 6p + 6n 0

Draw a larger circle around the nucleus circle to represent the first energy level for electrons

Add more circles outside to include all of the energy levels you need for the atom.

(Hint: In what period is the element?)

Now add electrons, as small dots, to each energy level as allowed until you have the proper number of electrons for a neutral element. Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu The number of electrons should be equal to the number of protons. Remember: C 6p + 6n 0 If you need a third level make your circles a little smaller. 8 3 8 2 2 1 # of e - Energy Level

Now add electrons, as small dots, to each energy level as allowed until you have the proper number of electrons for a neutral element.

You now have a complete Bohr Diagram Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu C 6p + 6n 0

You now have a complete Bohr Diagram

Electron Dot Diagrams Also called Lewis Structures Representation of valence electrons only Useful only for “Representative elements” Gives some indication of the geometry (shape) of compounds when used for bonding diagrams Easy to draw

Also called Lewis Structures

Representation of valence electrons only

Useful only for “Representative elements”

Gives some indication of the geometry (shape) of compounds when used for bonding diagrams

Easy to draw

Electron Dot Diagrams The Elemental Symbol serves as the representation of the nucleus C

The Elemental Symbol serves as the representation of the nucleus

Electron Dot Diagrams Dots are added around the nucleus to show electrons only in the outer energy level C Carbon has only 4 electrons in the 2 nd energy level so we need only represent those 4 Like the Hund rule add 1 electron per side, then add more as needed.

Dots are added around the nucleus to show electrons only in the outer energy level

Electron Dot Diagrams Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) C Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons. The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8

Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements)

Electron Dot Diagrams Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) O The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8 Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons.

Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements)

Electron Dot Diagrams Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) Cl The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8 Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons.

Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements)

Electron Dot Diagrams Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) Li The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8 Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons.

Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements)

Electron Dot Diagrams Transition metals don’t have valence electrons. They have Oxidation Numbers Fe Cu Ag Pb +2 +2 +2 +4 We’ll Talk about Oxidation Numbers Next Week!

Transition metals don’t have valence electrons. They have Oxidation Numbers

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