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Published on November 23, 2007

Author: Emma

Source: authorstream.com

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SME2Logic Translation - an initial approach:  SME2Logic Translation - an initial approach Peter Clark Boeing Company Claims:  Claims SMEs can build adequate, new representations by “connecting pre-built components” together New representation defined largely in terms of existing ones To specify these connections, a small number of simple axiom types are adequate This provides a basis for a SME-usable interface Only need to support these “connection” axioms Things the SME Might Say… :  Things the SME Might Say… “A virus attack is a kind of invasion… “…where the thing doing the attacking is a virus… “…and the thing attacked is a cell… “…The virus takes control by delivering… “…its DNA to the cell…” Things the SME Might Say… :  Things the SME Might Say… “A virus attack is a kind of invasion… “…where the thing doing the attacking is a virus… “…and the thing attacked is a cell… “…The virus takes control by delivering… “…its DNA to the cell…” Five Types of Assertions: “create” : Placement in the taxonomy Things the SME Might Say… :  Things the SME Might Say… “A virus attack is a kind of invasion… “…where the thing doing the attacking is a virus… “…and the thing attacked is a cell… “…The virus takes control by delivering… “…its DNA to the cell…” Five Types of Assertions: “create” : Placement in the taxonomy “specialize” : Restricting an object’s class/type Things the SME Might Say… :  Things the SME Might Say… “A virus attack is a kind of invasion… “…where the thing doing the attacking is a virus… “…and the thing attacked is a cell… “…The virus takes control by delivering… “…its DNA to the cell…” Five Types of Assertions: “create” : Placement in the taxonomy “specialize” : Restricting an object’s class/type “add” : Introduction of new concepts Things the SME Might Say… :  Things the SME Might Say… “A virus attack is a kind of invasion… “…where the thing doing the attacking is a virus… “…and the thing attacked is a cell… “…The virus takes control by delivering… “…its DNA to the cell…” Five Types of Assertions: “create” : Placement in the taxonomy “specialize” : Restricting an object’s class/type “add” : Introduction of new concepts “connect” : Stating a relation between two concepts Things the SME Might Say… :  Things the SME Might Say… “A virus attack is a kind of invasion… “…where the thing doing the attacking is a virus… “…and the thing attacked is a cell… “…The virus takes control by delivering… “…its DNA to the cell…” Five Types of Assertions: “create” : Placement in the taxonomy “specialize” : Restricting an object’s class/type “add” : Introduction of new concepts “connect” : Stating a relation between two concepts “unify” : Coreference (equality) “Displaying axioms” to the SME:  “Displaying axioms” to the SME Approach: To present axioms about a concept C, SME doesn’t see the raw axioms directly Rather, SME sees an example I of C Sees a set of ground facts about I sees the results of applying those axioms to I ground facts are comprehensible and graphable SME builds new concept by interacting with this and other examples “Displaying axioms” to the SME: Example:  “Displaying axioms” to the SME: Example New Concept: VirusInvade Is a type of: Invade  Create an instance (example) of Invade: VirusInvade01 How the SME Makes Assertions:  How the SME Makes Assertions The SME manipulates instances in this representation, using four types of action Each action corresponds to a simple, ground assertion Any statements he/she makes about I will later be considered to hold for all instances of C The SME Actions::  The SME Actions: defender(VirusInvade01, Object01). attacker(VirusInvade01, Agent01). defense(Object01, Barrier01). isa(Agent01, Agent). isa(Object01, Object). isa(Barrier01, Barrier). … Ground Facts (text) Arrive Object Break Enter VirusInvade Barrier Agent attacker defender then then subevents defense location agent patient agent agent Ground Facts (graph) SPECIALIZE: isa(Object01, Cell) ADD: UNIFY:  v isa(v,Virus) Agent01 = Virus01 CONNECT: agent(Break01, Virus01) Generalizing the SME’s assertions:  Generalizing the SME’s assertions SME’s assertion: “Object01 is a Cell” Rephrase to only mention the root instance: “The defender of VirusInvade01 is a Cell” Generalize: “The defender of all VirusInvades is a Cell” In Logic: SME’s assertion: isa(Object01, Cell) Rephrase:  x defender(VirusInvade01,x)  isa(x,Cell) Generalize:  i isa(i,VirusInvade)   x defender(i,x)  isa(x,Cell) “Graph-Editing” Issues:  “Graph-Editing” Issues How to overcome limits of working with examples of concepts? some info undisplayable (“in cells, all lysosomes are in cytoplasm”) Some inexpressible (e.g., quantification, deletion/non-monotonicity) How to integrate testing? How can the SME find concepts in the library? How can we ensure the SME uses concepts in the intended way? How can we guide the SME as to what to do next? How does SME add new concepts during editing? How can we avoid graphs becoming unmanageably cluttered? Who lays out the graph? SME – how do we show side-effects of his/her actions? System – how do we make layout stable and sensible? Slide15:  Wider Issues What is the scope and role of this kind of graphical interface? View it as a generic editor? A “process model” editor? What are the types of knowledge we need, and what editors are needed? Types: isa, parts, purpose, constraints, duration, attributes, sequences Editor styles: tree editing, form-filling, text dialog, sketching How can we re-introduce informal knowledge into this?

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