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BLOOM'S TAXONOMY (complete)

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Information about BLOOM'S TAXONOMY (complete)
Education

Published on September 3, 2013

Author: jam18

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Prepared by: Ms. JAMAICA OLAZO
https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393
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Definition of Taxonomy
Benjamin Samuel Bloom
History of Bloom's Taxonomy
Three Domains
Six Levels of Cognitive Domain
Appropriate Verbs
Products and Model Questions
Developing Higher-order Thinking Questions
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BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Jamaica C. Olazo https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

• comes from the Greek word “taxis=arrangements” and “nomos=science” • Science of arrangements • means 'a set of classification principles', or 'structure', and • Domain simply means 'category'. TAXONOMY 2 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

- was a Jewish-American educational psychologist. Contributions: 1. Classification of Educational Objectives 2. Theory of Mastery-Learning (Feb. 1913 – Sep. 1999) Who is BENJAMIN BLOOM? BENJAMIN SAMUEL BLOOM 3

COGNITIVE DOMAIN Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation PSYCHOMOTO R DOMAIN AFFECTIVE DOMAIN Reflex Movements Basic Fundamental Movements Perceptual Abilities Physical Abilities Skilled Movements Non-Discursive Movements Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization 4 Attitude and emotions domain Physical tasks such as the manipulating of objects Development of critical thinking skills

THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING • Mental Skills (KNOWLEDGE) Cognitive Domain (Knowing/Head) • Manual or physical skills (SKILLS) Psychomotor Domain (Doing/Hands) • Growth in feelings or emotional areas (ATTITUDE) Affective Domain (Feeling/Heart) 5 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Lower-order Thinking Skills to Higher-order Thinking Skills 6 Evolved function, High complexity Basic function, Low complexity Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge The Cognitive Domain 1956 7 Lower-order Thinking Skills Higher-order Thinking Skills

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Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge The Cognitive Domain 1956 10 Lower-order Thinking Skills Higher-order Thinking Skills

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering The Cognitive Domain 2001(Revised) 11 Lower-order Thinking Skills Higher-order Thinking Skills

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13 ORIGINAL TAXONOMY (1956) ---> REVISED TAXONOMY (2001) • Knowledge • Comprehension • Analysis • Application • Synthesis • Evaluation  Remember (I know)  Understand (I comprehend)  Apply (I can use it)  Analyze (I can be logical)  Evaluate (I can judge)  Create ( I can plan) Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

• REMEMBERING - Recall previous learned information. - Recalling relevant knowledge from long term memory. - Rote learning or memorization. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy R E M E M B E R I N G 14 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

• UNDERSTANDING - Comprehending the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. - Construct meaning and explain. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy U N D E R S T A N D I N G 15 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

• APPLYING - Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of abstraction. - applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations. - abstract ideas into practical situations Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy A P P L Y I N G 16 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

• ANALYZING - Breaking the concept into parts and understand how each part is related to one another. - Illustrate relationships to one another. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy A N A L Y Z I N G 17 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

• EVALUATING - Making judgments based on a set of guidelines and the value of ideas or materials. - Judge, criticize and assess information using what you know to make decisions and support your views. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy E V A L U A T I N G 18 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

• CREATING - Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. - Putting information together in an innovative way. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy C R E A T I N G 19 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

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Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER APPROPRIATE VERBS Choose, describe, define, identify, label, list, locate, match, memorize, name, omit, recite, recognize, select, state, underline 21 I know Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

PRODUCTS Chart, model, worksheet, draw a map, picture, demonstrate, graphs 22 Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER I know Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

23 MODEL QUESTIONS • Who? Where? Which One? What? How? • What is the best one? Why? How much? When? • What does it mean? INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Highlighting • Rehearsal • Memorizing • Mnemonics Cognitive Domain: REMEMBER I know

24  APPROPRIATE VERBS Classify, defend, communicate, demonstrate, distinguish, explain, express extend, give example, illustrate, indicate, interrelate, report, interpret, infer, judge, match, paraphrase, represent, restate, rewrite, select, interpret Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND I comprehend Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

PRODUCTS Chart, model, making a film strip, worksheet, draw a map, picture, demonstrate, timeline, diorama, game, report, diagram Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND 25 I comprehend Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

26 MODEL QUESTIONS • State in your own words. Which are facts? • What does this mean? Is this the same as. . .? Give an example. • Select the best definition. • State in one word . . . Explain what is happening. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Key examples • Emphasize connections • Elaborate concepts • Summarize Cognitive Domain: UNDERSTAND I comprehend

Cognitive Domain: APPLY 27 APPROPRIATE VERBS Apply, choose, practice, solve, illustrate, conduct, classify, employ, dramatize, explain, generalize, judge, organize, paint, prepare, produce, select, show, sketch, solve, use, construct, investigate, restructure, manipulate I can use it Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

PRODUCTS Survey, diary, scrapbook, photograph, cartoon, learning center, illustration, construction, sculpture 28 Cognitive Domain: APPLY I can use it Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

29  MODEL QUESTIONS • Predict what would happen if… Choose the best statements that apply… • Judge the effects… • What would result… • Tell what would happen… • Tell how, when, where, why Tell how much change there would be… • Identify the results of…  INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Modeling • Cognitive apprenticeships “Mindful” practice – NOT just a “routine” practice • Part and whole sequencing • Authentic situations “Coached” practice Case studies Simulations Algorithms Cognitive Domain: APPLY I can use it

Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE 30  APPROPRIATE VERBS • Analyze, categorize, classify, compare, differentiate, question, distinguish, identify, • Infer, point out, select, subdivide, survey, contrast, categorize, debate, examine, deduce I can be logical Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

PRODUCTS Graph, survey, family tree, timeline, questionnaire, commercial, diagram, chart, report, fact file 31 Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE I can be logical

32  MODEL QUESTIONS • What is the function of . . .? What's fact? Opinion? What assumptions. . .? • What statement is relevant? What motive is there? • Related to, extraneous to, not applicable. • What conclusions? • What does the author believe? What does the author assume? • Make a distinction.  INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Models of thinking • Challenging assumptions • Retrospective analysis • Reflection through journaling Debates • Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision- making situations Cognitive Domain: ANALYZE I can be logical

Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE 33 APPROPRIATE VERBS • Appraise, judge, criticize, defend, estimate, compare, measure, verify, justify, select, decide, choose, recommend, assess, critique, revise, validate, standardize, argue, rate, measure I can judge Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

PRODUCTS Self evaluation, survey, editorial, experiment, panel evaluation, recommendation, conclusion, court trial, essay, letter 34 Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE I can judge

35 MODEL QUESTIONS • What fallacies, consistencies, inconsistencies appear? • Which is more important, moral, better, logical, valid, appropriate? • Find the errors. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Challenging assumptions • Journaling • Debates • Discussions and other collaborating learning activities Decision-making situations Cognitive Domain: EVALUATE I can judge

Cognitive Domain: CREATE 36 APPROPRIATE VERBS • Choose, combine, compose, construct, create, design, manage, develop, do, improve, formulate, hypothesize, invent, make up, originate, organize, plan, imagine, produce, role play, tell I can plan Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

PRODUCTS Story, poem, play, radio show, puppet show, news article, invention, dance, mural, comic strip, recipe, pantomime, travelogue 37 Cognitive Domain: CREATE I can plan Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

38 MODEL QUESTIONS • How would you test…? • Propose an alternative. • Solve the following. • How else would you...? • State a rule.  INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES • Modeling • Challenging assumptions Reflection through journaling Debates • Discussions and other • collaborating learning activities • Design • Decision-making situations Cognitive Domain: CREATE I can plan

39 HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER- ORDER QUESTIONS? 1. Avoid literal-level questions in favor of those requiring higher-order thinking. 2. Use questions requiring higher-order thinking. Higher-order questions are important for modeling different ways students can: - Interpret - Apply - Evaluate - Reflect on what they are learning

40 HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER- ORDER QUESTIONS? 3. Classify questions according to the kinds of thinking required for students to respond. – Use of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Thinking – Questions classified as knowledge or comprehension should be avoided – Teachers should make sure their questions can be classified as APPLICATION, ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS and/or EVALUATION. Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

HOW CAN WE DEVELOP THE HABIT OF ASKING HIGHER- ORDER QUESTIONS? 41 4. Use verbs associated with higher-order thinking tasks. - Verbs representing cognitive tasks in Bloom’s Taxonomy 5. Consider the learning products associated with higher-order thinking tasks. - Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

42 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES 1. Pose the question first before asking a student to respond. 2. Allow plenty of “think time” by waiting at least 7-10 seconds before expecting the student to respond. -help students adjust to an extended wait time 43 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES 3. Give all students the opportunity to respond rather than relying on volunteers. a. Create a system to help you keep track of who you call on b. Allow your student to “pass” when he’s not ready to respond c. Give him another opportunity later 44 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES 4. Hold students accountable by expecting, requiring, and facilitating their participation and contributions. a. Never answer your own questions. b. Do NOT accept “I don’t know” for an answer. c. Offer hints or suggestions to guide students. d. Offer two or more options and let the student choose one 45 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES 5. Establish a safe atmosphere for risk taking by guiding students. a. Always “dignify” incorrect responses by saying something positive about students. b. Build confidence and trust when students make mistakes. c. Admit your own mistakes and “think aloud” examples of a reflection. 46 Jamaica C. Olazo || https://www.facebook.com/ja.maica.393

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