Blood & Nerve supply of heart

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Information about Blood & Nerve supply of heart
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Published on February 16, 2012

Author: kafe12

Source: authorstream.com

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Cardiovascular System Heart blood and nerve supply: 1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Cardiovascular System Heart blood and nerve supply Rezigalla, A.A. Assist. Prof. of Anatomy Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits : 22- 2 Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits The pulmonary circuit consists of the chambers on the right side of the heart (right atrium and ventricle) as well as the pulmonary arteries and veins. conveys blood to the lungs via pulmonary arteries to reduce carbon dioxide and replenish oxygen levels in the blood Blood returns to the heart in pulmonary veins Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits : 22- 3 Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits Blood returns to the left side of the heart , where it then enters the systemic circuit. The systemic circuit consists of the chambers on the left side of the heart (left atrium and ventricle), along with all the other named blood vessels. carries blood to all the peripheral organs and tissues of the body Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits: 22- 4 Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits Oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart is pumped into the aorta the largest systemic artery in the body then into smaller systemic arteries. Gas exchange in tissues occurs from capillaries. Systemic veins then carry deoxygenated blood (high in carbon dioxide) and waste products. Most veins merge and drain into the superior and inferior venae cavae drain blood into the right atrium. There, the blood enters the pulmonary circuit, and the cycle repeats . Innervation of the Heart : 22- 5 Innervation of the Heart Innervated by the autonomic nervous system. Consists of both sympathetic and parasympathetic components. referred to as the coronary plexus Autonomic innervation by autonomic centers in the hindbrain doesn’t initiate heartbeat, but it can increase or decrease the heartbeat. Rich innervation to SA and AV nodes, but also to myocardial cells. Sympathetic Innervation: 22- 6 Sympathetic Innervation Sympathetic innervation i ncreases the rate and the force of heart contractions arises from T1-T5 segments of spinal cord enter sympathetic trunk, ascend and pass through ganglia travel through heart via cardiac nerves Innervation: 22- 7 Innervation Parasympathetic Innervation: 22- 8 Parasympathetic Innervation Parasympathetic innervation decreases heart rate, but tends to have no effect on the force of contractions, except in special circumstances comes off of the medulla oblongata via right and left vagus nerves (CN X) Cardiac plexuses : Cardiac plexuses Superficial Lies below the arch of aorta, anterior to ligamentum arteriosum . Formed by: Cardiac branch of the let superior cervical sympathetic ganglia. Inferior cervical cardiac branch of the left vagus . Branches: Rt coronary plexus. Left anterior pulmonary plexus. Deep cardiac plexus. Deep Anterior to the bifurcation of trachea. Formed by: All cervical cardiac branches of the cervical sympathetic trunk except the let superior cervical sympathetic ganglia. All cervical cardiac branches of the vagui except the left inferior cervical cardiac branch. Recurrent laryngeal nerve Branches: Lt coronary plexus. Rt coronary plexus. Left anterior pulmonary plexus. Rt anterior pumonary plexus. Superficial cardiac plexus. 22- 9 Conduction System of the Heart : 22- 10 Conduction System of the Heart Exhibits autorhythmicity the heart itself (not external nerves) is responsible for initiating the heartbeat. Certain cardiac muscle fibers are specialized to conduct muscle impulses to the contractile muscle cells of the myocardium. Specialized cells are part of the heart’s conduction system. Conduction System of the Heart – Sinoatrial (SA) Node: 22- 11 Conduction System of the Heart – Sinoatrial (SA) Node Heartbeat is initiated by the cardiac muscle fibers of the sinoatrial (SA) node. located in the posterior wall of the right atrium, adjacent to the entrance of the superior vena cava Act as the pacemaker. rhythmic center that establishes the pace for cardiac activity Initiates impulses 70 - 80 times per minute. Conduction System of the Heart – Atrioventricular (AV) Node: 22- 12 Conduction System of the Heart – Atrioventricular (AV) Node Impulse travels to both atria, stimulating atrial systole. And via an internodal conduction pathway through an opening in the fibrous skeleton to the atrioventricular (AV) node . located in the floor of the right atrium between the right AV valve and the coronary sinus Conduction System of the Heart – Atrioventricular (AV) Bundle: 22- 13 Conduction System of the Heart – Atrioventricular (AV) Bundle Cardiac impulse then travels from the AV node to the atrioventricular (AV) bundle( bundle of His). extends into the interventricular septum and then divides into one right and two left bundle branches. Conduct the impulse to conduction fibers called Purkinje fibers in the heart apex. Purkinje fibers are larger than other cardiac muscle fibers. Muscle impulse conduction along the Purkinje fibers is extremely rapid . The impulse spreads immediately throughout the ventricular myocardium. PowerPoint Presentation: 14 PowerPoint Presentation: 15 Coronary Circulation : 22- 16 Coronary Circulation Left and right coronary arteries travel in the coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove) of the heart to supply the heart wall. the only branches of the ascending aorta Located immediately superior to the aortic semilunar valve. The right coronary artery typically branches into the marginal artery supplies the right border of the heart posterior interventricular artery supplies both the left and right ventricles Left coronary artery: Left coronary artery Origen: Arise from the left posterior sinus of the ascending aorta. Course : It passes between the LT auricle & pulmonary trunk. then descends to the Lt in the coronary groove. It divides into two branches. Branches: Vasa vasorum branche to pulmonary trunk & aorta. Artery of SA node. Anterior aterial & ventricular branches. Anterior interventricular branch Runs in the AIVG. Supplies ventricular part of sternocostal surface. Supplies the anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum. Circumflex branch. Continuation of the Lt coronary artery. It curves around the left border within coronary sulcus . Supplies left atrium & base of the left ventricle. 22- 17 Right coronary artery: Right coronary artery Origen: Arise from the anterior sinus of the ascending aorta. Course : It passes between the Rt auricle & pulmonary trunk. then descends to the Rt in the coronary groove. turns to the left and continues in the coronary groove to the posterior aspect of the heart. At the crux it inters the posterior intervenrticular groove. Branches: Vasa vasorum branche to pulmonary trunk & aorta. Artery of SA node. Anterior aterial & ventricular branches. Marginal artery Runs along the lower border. Not reaching the apex. Posterior aterial & ventricular branches. Artery of AV node. Posterior interventricular branch. Terminal branch. On the diphragmatic surface. 22- 18 Veins of the heart : Veins of the heart Heart drains by: Venae cordis minimi . Small veins. Drain adjacent muscular wall. Open in the heart chambers. Anterior ventricular veins (3-4). Drain the anterior surface of the Rt ventricle. End in the Rt atrium. Coronary sinus. One inch long. Lies between Lt atrium and ventricle. Opens in the Rt atrium between opening of AV valve & IVC. Tributaries: Great cardiac vein (circumflex vein). Left marginal vein. Middle cardiac vein. Small cardiac vein. Oblique vein of the left atrium. 22- 19 PowerPoint Presentation: 20 PowerPoint Presentation: 21 PowerPoint Presentation: 22 PowerPoint Presentation: 23 PowerPoint Presentation: 24

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