black sea energy and the environment conference

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Information about black sea energy and the environment conference
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Published on December 23, 2007

Author: Nathaniel

Source: authorstream.com

BLACK SEA: FROM “CLOSED SEA” TO A SEA OF REGIONAL COOPERATION by Nilufer Oral, JD Bilgi University:  BLACK SEA: FROM “CLOSED SEA” TO A SEA OF REGIONAL COOPERATION by Nilufer Oral, JD Bilgi University   1982 LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION :  1982 LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION Article 192 General obligation   States have the obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment   SECTION 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION :  SECTION 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION Article 197 Cooperation on a global or regional basis States shall cooperate on a global basis and, as appropriate, on a regional basis, directly or through competent international organizations, in formulating and elaborating international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures consistent with this Convention, for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, taking into account characteristic regional features. Sea of Conflict Treaties 18th – 19th Century:  Sea of Conflict Treaties 18th – 19th Century ·         1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ·         1792 Treaty of Perpetual Peace, Jassy ·         1798/99 Russo-Ottoman Treaty (Secret) ·         1805 Treaty of Defensive Alliance (Russian-Ottoman) ·         1806 Treaty of Alliance between Russia and the Ottoman Empire Slide5:  ·         1829 Treaty of Edirne ·         1833 Hünkar İskelesi Treaty ·         1840 London Treaty ·         1856 Treaty of Paris (post-Crimea) ·         1870- Russian denouncement of neutralisation of Black Sea ·         London Convention 1871   20th Century Treaties :  20th Century Treaties The World Wars ·         The 1923 Lausanne Treaty for the Regime of the Turkish Straits ·         The 1936 Montreux Treaty for the Regime of the Turkish Straits The Cold War:  The Cold War ·    Soviet “closed sea” doctrine created for the Black Sea ·    1980’s US-USSR Black Sea confrontation ·    1989 Joint Statement by the U.S. and the USSR on Uniform Interpretation of Rules of International Law Governing Innocent Passage Slide8:  End of the Cold War and emergence of regional environmental cooperation Cooperation among the six Black Sea littoral States :  Cooperation among the six Black Sea littoral States ·  Bucharest Convention and Protocols(1992) ·   Odessa Declaration (1993) · United Nations Environmental Programme for the Black Sea (1993) ·   Black Sea Strategic Action Programme (1993) ·  Black Sea Protection Commission · Sofia Declaration 2002 ·  The Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation 2003.:  ·   Black Sea Strategic Action Programme (1993) ·  Black Sea Protection Commission · Sofia Declaration 2002 ·  The Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation 2003. Expanded Regional Cooperation:  Expanded Regional Cooperation   Danube River Basin Countries :    Danube River Basin Countries 1994 Danube River Protection Convention (11 State Parties) 2001 M o U between International Commission for Danube (IC PDR)and International Commission for Black Sea (ICPBS) Joint Task Force- DABLAS     European Union:    European Union Communication from the Commission COM/2001/0615- Environmental cooperation in the Danube-Black Sea Region. EU White Paper on Transport Policy EU Water Framework Directive EU Green Paper on the Environment Black Sea Economic Cooperation :  Black Sea Economic Cooperation Article 4 of the Charter of the Organisation of the Black Sea Cooperation includes the “environment” as an “area of cooperation” amongst the member parties. 20 February 2002 the BSEC signed with UNEP the “Agreement on Cooperation Between the Black Sea Cooperation and the United Nations Environmental Programme” Article 2 of the Agreement: BSEC and UNEP are to take into account the “Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe Convention on Fisheries and Conservation of the Black Sea living Resources Caspian/Caucuses Energy :  Caspian/Caucuses Energy Opportunitıes and need for greater cooperation and Challenges Oil Transportation by Sea Pipe Lines Economic Development Sustainable Development Polluter Pays Principle Required

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