Black History Month slides

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Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Brainy007

Source: authorstream.com

Slide2:  Thomas Adeoye Lambo was born on 29 March 1923 in Abeokuta, Nigeria. He was educated at a mission school and studied medicine in Birmingham, England, graduating in 1948. After a distinguished academic career he became Deputy Director of the World Health Organization in 1973, and worked in that capacity until 1988. He was honoured by many academic institutions during his life. His active contribution to psychiatry spanned the period 1953–2004. Lambo’s most innovative development was the Aro village system. Psychiatric patients were boarded out to 4 villages around Aro. He believed that those who were boarded out more quickly adapted themselves to their situation than those taken into hospital. He thought that this was the result of their contact with a settled, tolerant, and healthy environment. He included traditional doctors and herbalists in his programme of treatment. His most enduring legacies are the Neuropsychiatric Hospital Aro, which he built, and the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Ibadan where he was the foundation Professor and Head of Department. His dedication to service, his energy and drive, his exceptional vision and innovative spirit served as a model for many of us. Professor Lambo was the most eminent African psychiatrist of his generation, famous throughout Africa and the rest of the world. Prof Thomas Lambo Innovative Psychiatrist Slide3:  Dr. Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1856 - August 4, 1931) was an African-American surgeon. Williams is known today for performing an early surgery on the pericardium, repairing a knife wound with the use of sutures. Daniel Hale Williams was born in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1883, Williams graduated from the Chicago Medical College and began his medical career in the office of Surgeon General Henry Palmer in Janesville, Wisconsin. In 1893 Dr. Williams repaired the torn pericardium of James Cornish, who had suffered a knife wound to the heart. This is the second repair of a wound to the pericardium on record, the first having been performed by Dr Henry Dalton. During the administration of President Grover Cleveland, Dr. Williams was appointed as Surgeon-in-Chief of Freedman's Hospital in Washington, DC. Dr. Williams organised the hospital and established a training school for African-American nurses. In 1895 he co-founded the National Medical Association for black doctors, and in 1913 he became a charter member and the only black in the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Williams died of a stroke on August 4, 1931 in Idlewild, Michigan. Dr Daniel Hale Williams Pioneer of heart surgery Slide4:  Patricia E. Bath was born in 1949 and raised in Harlem, New York. She received medical training at Howard University in Washington, D.C. In 1968, she became the medical coordinator for the Poor People’s Campaign that advocated economic rights. From 1968-1969, Bath was an intern at Harlem Hospital at the eye clinic. She noticed that the rate of blindness amongst African Americans was double that of Columbia University, due to lack of ophthalmologic care. Because of this, Bath invented what she called the “New Discipline”: an integrated programme of public health, community medicine, and clinical ophthalmology for the underserved population. She had a distinguished academic career and was the first African-American resident in ophthalmology. With three colleagues she founded the A.I.P.B - the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Bath invented the Laserphaco Probe in 1981, but was unable to get a patent on it until 1988. It is now patented in five countries. The probe is designed to remove cataracts from the eye by cutting with a laser – a very small but powerful beam of light. Patricia E. Bath was the first woman doctor to receive a patent for a medical invention. She continues to research new ways that blindness can be prevented, treated or even cured. She stands as an advocate of telemedicine today. Dr Patricia E. Bath Inventor of laser eye surgery Slide5:  Otis Boykin (1920-1982) was an African-American inventor and engineer. Otis Boykin was in 1920 in Dallas, Texas. His mother was a homemaker and his father was a carpenter. He worked as a laboratory assistant at the nearby University's aerospace lab. Boykin attended Fisk University and Illinois Institute of Technology but dropped out after 2 years because his parents could not afford his tuition. Boykin invented more than 25 electronic devices. One of his early inventions was an improved electrical resistor for computers, radios, televisions and an assortment of other electronic devices. Other notable inventions include a variable resistor used in guided missiles and small component thick-film resistors for computers. Boykin's most famous invention was a control unit for the pacemaker. The device, essentially, uses electrical impulses to maintain a regular heartbeat. Otis Boykin Inventor of the control unit for the heart pacemaker Slide6:  Harriet Tubman (c. 1820 – March 10, 1913), was an African dedicated to the abolition of slavery. As an escaped captive she made nineteen missions to rescue 300 captives to freedom in Canada using the Underground Railroad. This was not a real railway, but a network of ‘stations’ (safe houses) and ‘conductors’ (who were mainly white Quaker Christians). During her lifetime, she worked as a lumberjack, laundress, nurse, and cook. As an abolitionist, she helped liberate scores of captives, and inspired many more to do so independently. During the American Civil War, she was responsible for several roles such as intelligence gatherer, refugee organizer, raid leader, nurse, and fundraiser. Tubman was the first African-American woman to plan and lead a military operation. She prided herself in never losing a passenger on the underground railroad, and never being captured. Harriet Tubman Nurse and liberator Slide7:  Mary Jane Seacole (1805 — 14 May 1881) was a British nurse of mixed race. Born in Jamaica, she operated boarding houses in Panama and Crimea whilst treating the sick. Seacole was taught herbal remedies and folk medicine by her mother. Always of a nomadic disposition, on hearing of the terrible conditions of the Crimean War and certain that her knowledge of tropical medicine would be of use, she travelled to London and volunteered as a nurse. Although an expert at dealing with cholera, her application to join Florence Nightingale's team was rejected. She then borrowed money to make the 4,000 mile journey alone. On arrival she distinguished herself, treating the wounded on the battlefield, on many occasions treating wounded soldiers from both sides while under fire whereas Florence Nightingale and her nurses were based in a hospital in Turkey. Following the cessation of hostilities in 1856 she found herself stranded and almost destitute, and was saved from penury by the Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Lord Rokeby who organized a benefit. Seacole was lauded in her lifetime, alongside Florence Nightingale, but after her death was forgotten for almost 100 years. Today she is noted not only for her bravery and medical skills but as "a woman who succeeded despite the racial prejudice of influential sections of Victorian society“. Her autobiography, Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands (1857), a vivid account of her life and experiences, is one of the earliest autobiographies by a mixed-race woman Mary Jane Seacole Pioneering nurse of the Crimean War Slide9:  Steve Biko (1946 - 1977) As a medical student in Natal Steve Biko founded the all-Black South African Students' Organisation. He travelled around different Black campuses establishing solidarity and working for students to be "accepted on their own terms as an integral part of the South African community", by emphasising pride, self-respect, self-reliance and belief in the ability to achieve political and social justice. His organisation grew to a coalition of over 70 Black Groups which stood as a national political party at a time when the main Black parties - including the African National Congress- today's South African government - had been banned. He was frequently under observation and imprisoned for his work, where he was tortured and beaten to death, at the age of 31. Steve Biko (1946 - 1977) Slide10:  "The struggle is my life." “To be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.” Nelson Mandela sacrificed his private life and his youth for his people, and remains South Africa's best known and loved hero. In 1944 he helped found the ANC Youth League, whose Programme of Action was adopted by the ANC in 1949. By 1952 Mandela and Oliver Tambo had opened the first black legal firm in the country. Mandela was both Transvaal President of the ANC and Deputy National President. Mandela condemned the Bantustan policy. He predicted mass removals, political persecutions and police terror. He spoke out against the introduction of Bantu Education, recommending that community activists "make every home, every shack or rickety structure a centre of learning". He was sentenced to life imprisonment for sabotage in 1962 and was released on Sunday 11 February 1990. He was inaugurated as the first democratically elected State President of South Africa on 10 May 1994 and served up to June 1999. Mandela has honorary degrees from more than 50 international universities and is chancellor of the University of the North. Nelson Mandela (born 1918) Slide11:  General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret.) (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman. He was the 65th United States Secretary of State (2001-05), serving under President George W. Bush. He was the first African American appointed to that position. As a General in the United States Army, Powell also served as National Security Advisor (1987–1989) and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989–1993), holding the latter position during the Gulf War. “If you are going to achieve excellence in big things, you develop the habit in little matters. Excellence is not an exception, it is a prevailing attitude.” “Many interviewers when they come to talk to me, think they're being progressive by not mentioning in their stories any longer that I'm black. I tell them, 'Don't stop now. If I shot somebody you'd mention it.‘” Colin Powell (born 1937) Slide12:  Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, 1869 – 1948, was the pioneer of Satyagraha - resistance through total non-violence - which led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. His given name ‘Mahatma’ means ‘Great Soul’ in Sanskrit. In India, he has the title Father of the Nation. On 15 June 2007, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution declaring his birthday, October 2, to be the "International Day of Non-Violence.“ A British-educated lawyer, Gandhi led campaigns throughout his life against poverty, religious hatred, sex and caste discrimination and colonial domination. Gandhi famously led Indians on the Dandi Salt March in 1930, and made an open call for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for many years on numerous occasions in both South Africa and India. Gandhi remained committed to non-violence and truth even in the most extreme situations. A student of Hindu philosophy, he lived simply. He used rigorous fasts, for long periods, for both self-purification and protest. “I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent.” Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948) Slide13:  Angela grew up amongst racial tension in Alabama, USA, eventually becoming a member of the Black Panther Party. She became the third woman in history to appear on the FBI's most wanted list. She was formally charged with murder and kidnapping which she did not take part in. Davis spent sixteen months behind bars, until her subsequent acquittal of all charges. Then she ran for Vice President of the USA for the Communist Party! Today Angela lectures at the University of California and runs courses on Women's Studies. She continues to be a political and social activist on issues such as prison reform and equality for Black women of all social classes Angela Davis (born 1944) Slide14:  Queen Nzingha became ruler of Angola after the death of her brother in 1624. She gave many positions of leadership in her government to other women. She used to lead her troops in battle dressed as a man. She maintained a powerful resistance against a Portuguese conquest of her country, it was only after her death that the Portuguese trade in slaves expanded. Queen Nzingha (1582-1663) Slide15:  Lakshmi Bai became the Rani of Jhansi through marriage to the ruler of that region of India. After her husband died, British invaders said they would take over the government. Lakshmi led the defence of Jhansi in the Great Rebellion of 1857. She was an intelligent and brave military leader. It is said that she wore a turban, diamond bracelets, a sword and two silver pistols. Lakshmi Bai (c.1830 - 1858) Slide16:  Toussaint L’Ouverture was the son of an enslaved African chief in St Dominique (now called Haiti), He led a rebellion against slavery, defeated armies from France and Britain to establish the first free Black Republic in the world! He said, "In overthrowing me, you have cut down in St. Dominique only the trunk of the tree of liberty. It will spring up again by the roots for they are numerous and deep.“ His surname was was given to him by his enemies, as a compliment to his prowess. The name means ‘opening’ in French, and it refers to his renowned ability to find the weak spot in an enemy line. Toussaint L'Ouverture (c.1743-1803) Slide17:                        Marcus Garvey was a key figure in highlighting and fighting in anti-colonial and anti-racist struggles. He lived mainly in Kingston, Jamaica, New York and spent time in London where he studied and worked for the first Black newspaper in Britain. He encouraged ordinary people to organise for their own liberation, emphasising unity and giving practical help. Garvey is widely remembered as an important proponent of the Back-to-Africa movement, which encouraged those of African descent to return to their ancestral homelands. This movement would eventually inspire other movements, ranging from the Nation of Islam, to the Rastafari movement, which proclaims Garvey to be a prophet. Garvey said he wanted those of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave it. Marcus Garvey (1887 - 1940) Slide18:  Rosa Parks lived and worked in Montgomery, Alabama, USA and was an active leader in the Civil Rights Movement. Up to the 1950’s Black people were not allowed to use many of the same 'public' facilities as White people. For example they had to sit at the back of the bus. One day when the bus was very crowded, on her way home from work, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat at the back of the bus to a White man. Her subsequent arrest led to a boycott of the buses by Black people that lasted over a year - 381 days. Nearly 100 people were arrested, including Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King. In January and February 1956, the houses of Nixon and King were bombed. The boycott spread to Tallahassee that May. On December 20, the Supreme Court supported the decision of a lower court and federal injunctions were served on the bus company officials to end segregation. Montgomery's buses were integrated on December 21 1956. Rosa Parks played a crucial role in the events leading to equal civil rights for people of all races in the USA. Rosa Parks (1913 - 2005) Civil rights campaigner Slide20:  Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29, 1954) is the American multiple-Emmy Award winning host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest-rated talk show in television history. She is also an influential book critic, an Academy Award-nominated actress, and a magazine publisher. She has been ranked the richest African American of the 20th century, the most philanthropic African American of all time, and the world's only black billionaire for three straight years. She is also, according to some assessments, the most influential woman in the world. Oprah Winfrey (born 1954) Broadcaster, philanthropist Slide21:  Sir Trevor McDonald OBE (born George McDonald on 16 August 1939) is a Trinidadian-born British television presenter. Until 2005, he was a newscaster with ITN, notable for having been the first Black news anchor in the UK. McDonald was seen as a part of the broadcasting establishment, and was knighted in 1999. His clear, confident delivery and serious attitude made him one of British television's most trusted reporters. He had won more awards than any other British broadcaster. McDonald presented his last ITV News bulletin on 15 December 2005. The veteran newsreader stepped down from his role as anchor after more than 30 years at ITN, but said he has no plans to retire completely from television. Over the end titles of his last programme the old News at Ten end theme was played. Trevor MacDonald (born 1939) Broadcaster Slide22:  Benjamin Zephaniah left Jamaica as a child and grew up in Handsworth, Birmingham. He published his first book of poems, Pen Rhythm, in 1980. It was so well received that three editions were published. In 1996, Nelson Mandela requested that Zephaniah host the president's Two Nations Concert at London's Royal Albert Hall. In November 2003, Zephaniah wrote in The Guardian that he was turning down the invitation to accept the honour of Order of British Empire (OBE) award since it reminded him of "how my foremothers were raped and my forefathers brutalised". In addition to his published writing, Zephaniah has produced numerous music recordings, including Us and Dem (1990) and Belly of de Beast (1996). He holds an honorary doctorate in Arts and Humanities from the University of North London (1998), was made a Doctor of Letters by the University of Central England (1999), and a Doctor of the University by the University of Staffordshire (2002). In 1999, West London MH Trust named one of its wards after Benjamin Zephaniah. “It is now an open secret / Black people do not have / Chips on their shoulders, / They just have injustice on their backs / And justice on their minds, / And now we know that the road to liberty / Is as long as the road from slavery.” Benjamin Zephaniah (born 1958) Poet, novelist, playwright Slide23:  Maya Angelou became the first African-American woman to have non-fiction book in the best-seller lists, in 1970. It was the first volume of her autobiography, called 'I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.' One of her poems, 'Still I Rise', begins: 'You may write me down in history/ With your bitter, twisted lies,/ You may trod me in the very dirt/ But still, like dust, I'll rise' Maya Angelou (born 1928) Writer Slide24:  Rabindanath Tagore won a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Here is an extract from a translation of his poem. 'Gintanjali' written in 1910: 'I know that the day will come when I'll no longer see this earth, and my life will leave silently, drawing the last curtain across my eyes... When I think of this end my moments, the barriers fall and I see by the light of death Your world with it's careless treasures. How precious is its most despised place, how precious the poorest of its people. Rabindanath Tagore (1861 - 1941) Poet Slide26:  Ian Wright is one of Britain’s best known footballers. In 1991, whilst playing for Crystal Palace, he was chosen to play for England in a friendly against Cameroon. He moved to Arsenal for 2.5 million pounds, and scored on his debut in the Coca-Cola Cup against Leicester City, and then scored a hat-trick against Southampton in his first league start for the Gunners. He ended the season with 24 goals in 30 appearances, and made a further three appearances for England. In 1992, Wright ended the season as top English goal scorer, beating Gary Lineker by one goal. In 1993, he became the quickest Arsenal player to score 100 goals for the club, beating Ted Drake's 40 year record. He won the FA Cup and League Cup with Arsenal, and scored for England against Poland. He was the approached by ITV to host his own show, and has since carved out a very successful television career. He has been awarded the MBE. Ian Wright (born 1963) Footballer, broadcaster Slide27:  Jesse Owens broke four world records for running and long jump when he was 22 years old. He won four gold medals at the 1936 Olympic Games, held in Nazi Germany, where Adolf Hitler refused to shake hands with him. After retiring from athletics, he devoted himself to community work, especially with young people. Jesse Owens (1913-1980) Athlete Slide28:  Within 6 years of taking up boxing, in Kentucky, Cassius Clay had become Olympic Light Heavyweight champion. Cassius threw his medal away in disgust at the way he was still treated by segregated America. Another four years on (1964) he had become heavyweight champion of the world and converted to Islam, dropping his 'slave-name'. As well as being a sporting legend Ali upheld his principles. He refused to be made to feel inferior because of his race. He refused to fight in the USA's war on Vietnam, even when his medals were stripped from him. Ali won his championship status back and has been world champion three times. He is often acknowledged as the greatest boxer ever. Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Clay in 1942) Boxer Slide29:  Kelly Holmes (born 1970) Athlete Dame Kelly Holmes, DBE is a retired British middle-distance athlete. She won gold medals in the 800 metres and the 1500 metres at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. Kelly’s mother was 17 years old at the time of her birth in 1970. Kelly grew up in Hildenborough in Kent and attended the local comprehensive School. At 18 she joined the Army, where she worked as a lorry driver and physical trainer. She became British Army judo champion. On one occasion she was not allowed to compete in a women’s athletic event for fear of embarrassing other competitors! She became a full time athlete in 1997. While training in 2003 for the 2004 Summer Olympics at a French training camp, Holmes suffered a number of leg injuries. Falling deep into depression, she began cutting herself and was diagnosed with clinical depression. She became only the third woman in history to run in both 800m and 1500m at the Olympics. She was the UK’s first double gold medallist since 1920. Her time of 3 minutes 57.90 seconds in the 1500 m final set a new British record for the distance. Kelly Holmes was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the New Year's Honours List of 2005. Slide30:  Lennox Claudius Lewis CBE was born September 2, 1965 in West Ham. He is a retired professional boxer who represented Canada in the Olympics and fought under the British flag as a professional. He is a former undisputed lineal heavyweight champion. Along with Muhammad Ali and Evander Holyfield, Lewis is one of three boxers in heavyweight history to have won the Heavyweight Championship on three separate occasions. Lewis is 195cm (6 ft 5 in) tall and sports an 84-inch reach, much longer than average for his height. During his boxing prime, he weighed 112kg (247lb). Lewis often referred to himself as "the pugilist specialist". Lennox Lewis (born 1965) Boxer

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