BK 7210 Urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

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Information about BK 7210 Urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes
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Published on November 28, 2013

Author: jornvorn

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Bk7210 Urban analysis & design Minor: Green Blue City 2013 Lecture 2 Urban analysis and design principles BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Evelien Brandes

Contents of this lecture 1. Theory: Analysis of relized urban plans as the base for urban design slide 3-5 2. Scales of urban analysis and design: district and neighbourhood slide 6-10 3. The scale of the (city) district: structures and main elements slide 11-15 4. Principles on neighbourhood scale slide 16-28 5. Special focus elements slide 29-46 6. An example of urban design: Bovenkerk slide 47-60 7. Creative commons slide 61 BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

1. Some theories of urban plan making Analysis of realized urban plans are the base for urban design An urbanist is constantly going through a medium-switch from the real situation to the layout plan and from high level scale to detailed scale. - for everyone the low scale is the scale one experiences - studies of a lot of plans lead to a wide range of references (precedents) Urban design forms are the framework for (landscape) architects The urbanist has to have knowledge of building typologies and public spaces so the urban plan generates possibilities for architecture and landscape design. An urban design does not need to be too complicated It is about a plausible solution (to get actors- and public support) Complicated solutions are often too expensive, so will be deleted in the process. The urbanist also generates ideas about the assignment itself What should be done to improve this spatial situation or Where is the right location for the demanding function? What is the right program (amount / types of functions) for this location? BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Observing: city plan and reality BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Rotterdam Kop van Zuid

Relation public space and building typology Building typology standard building block single housing courtyard building, collective buildings Public space Street profiles, squares, parks, waterfronts, routes, bridges BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes free-standing buildings collective buildings An urban plan is designed on the basis of public space, not from the build structures

2. Scales of urban design - Level of the city district (dutch: stadsdeel) / city scale - Level of the district (dutch: wijk) / local scale - Level of the neighbourhood (dutch: buurt) / detailed scale BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Scales of urban design - Level of District Main structure infrastructure, car, bus + busstops, bike Vlekkenplan for neighbourhoods green- and waterstructure Borders and total (i.e. 1.000 dwellings/ neighbourhood) and public facilities layout plan 1: 10.000 - 1: 5.000 layout plan: 1:2.000 a 1: 1.000 - Level of Neighbourhood street and terrain profiles: 1: 500 - 200 neighbourhood profiles: 1: 1.000 - 1: 500 Parceling with buildings, streets, public green and shops/schools As detailed plan, i.e. zoning plan (bestemmingsplan) approximate 200 - 1000 dwellings >> front and back facades the city district (dutch: stadsdeel), the district (dutch: wijk) and the neighbourhood (dutch: buurt) BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

buildings high buildings mid buildings low shops industry high industry low public building private grounds park paved pubic area water metro tram sytem border BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Layout plan of the district Tarwewijk, drawings by students

buildings 10 storeys buildings 5 storeys buildings 4 storeys buildings 1 or 2 storeys private grounds park trees road bike lane sidewalk parking metro BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Layout plan of the district Tarwewijk, drawings by students

BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Recent image from Tarwewijk

3. The scale of the (city) district - Showing the elementary, determined elements - Green and water structure - Entrance to the district, main roads, public transport, main bike lanes, parks, shopping centre, concentration of schools and other facilities - Examples and scale of main elements, crucial details - Borders and surroundings of the location BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Design of the main structure Ypenburg BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes From general layout plan to detailed parcel plan

Elements on city or district level BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Access road, Zuidplein, Laan op Zuid and Zuiderpark

Main plan elements < 70m wide > BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Ypenburg, tramway and Laan op Zuid

Relation with the existing environment Plan Amsterdam South 1930 Location Vinex Ypenburg 1990 BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

4. Urban design principles - Road patterns - Relation main structure elements and neighbourhood patrons - Building typologies: low-rise or high-rise, closed building block or open blocks; free-standing buildings - Inner courts, public or private collective BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Principle of network solutions grid continious neutral spread traffic cul de sac Brancing / dead ended radburn A single entree couliflower hierarchie green paths without city BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes landscape (moterized) traffic

Gridstructure one or a few entrees > < basic principle neutraal or hierarchical > < directional variation mash width variation > BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Basic model - neutral

Closed block model of the city BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Basic principles for corners and street patterns with low-rise housing BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Basic parcellation scheme for low-rise housing 160,3m 48m dwellings (front) garden sidewalk 3m 3m 2m 5m bikelane sidewalk 5m 1,5m 6m 1,5m (car)lane front garden 3m bikelane dwelling 10m street 5m parking 3m 3m 2m parking 15m 63m (front) garden 10m 7 x 6m parking sidewalk 9,3m 2m 3m 3m 7,5m roadway 16 x 5,7m 23m back garden 10m 2m back alley 10m 91,2m dwellings 3m back alley back garden 1,5m 5m bikelane dwelling 2m front garden 23m sidewalk 9,5m sidewalk (front) garden Dwellings / building block: 46 Parking spaces: 58 Area fabric unit*: 10080 m2 (160mx63m) BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes 46 dwellings / hectare netto to compare: standaard district density: 35 dw/ha *fabric unit = building block including road infrastructure

Open and closed apartment block typology n x 6-10m 10-12m 1. Porch apartment block (open) > strip alignment > access by vertical cores (porches) > 4-6 storeys (x 3m) > elevator is mandatory >12m n x 6-10m 12-14m 2. Gallery apartment block (open) > strip alignment > access by 2 corner cores + gallery > 4-6 storeys (x 3m) > elevator is mandatory >12m BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes min. 30m n x 6-10m n x 8-12m 3. Closed building block > closed loop alignment > access porches and/or gallery > access from street and/or court > 4-6 storeys (x 3m) > elevator is mandatory >12m min. 20m n x 8-12m "n" stands for the infinite amount of units

min. 30m Freestanding apartment block typology n x 6-10m park ing 20-30m 20-30m 2. Apartment tower/Urban villa > core alignment > access by central core > 1-4 apartments/storey > Urban villa <12m > Low tower: 4-12 storeys (x 3m) > Medium tower: 12-27 storeys (x 3m) > High tower: 27-n storeys (x 3m) example: Montevideo R'dam (150m) 18-25m 1. Apartment block or flat > double strip alignment > access by 2 corner cores + hallway > 4-10 storeys (x 3m) > elevator is mandatory >12m park ing > plinth can be higher (4-5m) and broader often facilitates different function (communal, commercial, etc.) > underground parking preferable > distance between blocks >10m, due privacy and fire protection > preferable ratio hight blocks to width streets/courtyards 1:2 BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes "n" stands for the infinite amount of units

Apartment block typology plan of thirth floor section with "piercing dwellings" in the courtyard BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Apartment block “The Whale” Amsterdam, Frits van Dongen

Corners of the low-rise housing closed corner closed shop on the corner BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes corner with garden garden on the corner Statenkwatier and Ypenburg, The Hague

Closed corners in the city BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Centre of Paris

Standard back gardens low-rise housing BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Gardens 8-10m deep, often back alley

Possiblities with deep back gardens BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Gardens >20m deep

5. Special focus elements - Straight lines or curving or angled ones - Position of landmarks - Parking in the open air or garage - Neighbourhoods with water: singel or a canal BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Residential street wide 16m margin 12-20m BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Statenkwatier and Ypenburg, The Hague

Lane wide 22-30m with median strip for parking or green BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Leidsche Rijn, Utrecht

Traffic road wide 30-40m possiblilities : road for through traffic double lanes green or architectural unity BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Keizer Karelweg, Amstelveen and Valliantlaan, The Hague

The square as unity BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Witteveenplein, Kop van Zuid, Rotterdam

Curves and sight lines very light curvature sightline through continuing streets BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Inner city, Delft and Bovenkerk, Amstelveen

Sight lines, points for special architecture and fronts BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Carnisselande, Statenkwartier and Kop van Zuid

Standard street and parking BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes The Hague

Parking in the open air BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Utrecht Leidsche Rijn

Ensemble as architectonic unity BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Kop van Zuid, Rotterdam

Design of the public space BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Greenery, trees, water, pavement and street furniture

Diversity by building plot BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Carnisselande, Ypenburg, Javaeiland and Roombeek

Recent housing: apartments and low rise BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Ypenburg and Leidsche Rijn

The plinth and relation between in- and outside guidance in the street BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Delftseplein guidance in transition in-out Leidscheveen and Amsterdam

Relation with the water BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Leidscheveen, Ypenburg and De Meern

Composition of apartment buildings BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Hamburg Hafencity

BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Leidsche Rijn, Utrecht

Aspects Trafic system sytem of roads, streets and squars, public transport and stops Green parks, playgrounds, embankments and treelines Water large outside water or surface water, lanes, lakes, wadi Building block type open or closed, inner area, pubic or collective courts >> dwelling "milieu" type integration public facilities Public utilities garbage disposal, electricity buildings Edges quays, fields, central points or lines, spots and nodes. BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

6. Design example: Bovenkerk (2004) - Situation of the location - Context, limitations by sewage utilities - Concept plan - Definitive plan - Building typologies: low-rise or high-rise, closed building block or open blocks; freestanding buildings BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Situation Bovenkerk Zuid The design site used to be grassland, containing a road to Schiphol, which happend to be replaced by another road beyond it. BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Some restraints from the context Underground : Main gas and water supply lines BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Water route and ecological zone

Concept plan BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Alternatives for discussion 1: angled road 2: curved road NOORDRAND variant 1 NOORDRAND variant 2 1: free standing buildings 2. attached buildings BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Urban plan parcelling plan Scale 1:3000 low-riSe 2 layerS low-riSe 3 layerS buildingS 3 layerS buildingS 4 layerS buiildingS > 4 lagen exciSting buildingS School free parcelS public green Square parking water 24-04-2004 BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Urban design drawing in CAD parcelling plan Scale 1:3000 low-riSe 2 layerS low-riSe 3 layerS buildingS 3 layerS buildingS 4 layerS buiildingS > 4 lagen exciSting buildingS School free parcelS public green Square parking water 24-04-2004 BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

Cross sections with short and long measures bustrack - Vierlingsbeeklaan near apartments in green section 1a SOUTH bustrack Vierlingsbeeklaan NORTH Noorddammerlaan - eastern edge near senior apartmens-court section 2 SOUTH Noorddammerlaan BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes court EAST

Principles for corners and free standing buildings BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

References for plan Bovenkerk Traditional housing curved rows Thin residential tower BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Modern dike housing Modern architecture with pitched roofs All plans are newly build

Curved road at one side realized with houses BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Bovenkerk Amstelveen

Corner as a front BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Bovenkerk Amstelveen

Corner as the entree of a residential street BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Bovenkerk Amstelveen

Viewline realized BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes Bovenkerk Amstelveen

Creative commons You are free: - to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work - to make derivative works Under the following conditions: - Attribution. You must give the original author credit - Non-Commercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes - Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a licence identical to this one BK 7210 urban analysis and design principles – ir. Evelien Brandes

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