Published on March 14, 2014
Bitter gourd Momordica charantia L. A boon to Human being on the globe Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India
Family: Cucurbitaceae Momordica : a genus of 42 species Annual climbers It grows in tropical countries Africa, Asia, Amazon, South America PPRC/INDIA 02
Name from Latin meaning : “to bite” Some species: Momordica widely cultivated in India. Recorded species : 5 Species : M. balsamia M. charantia M. cochinchinensis spreng. PPRC/INDIA 03
To enhance beta cells (Ahmed et. al. 1998) To promote insulin release (Welihinda et. al. 1986) To increase glucose utilization in the Liver and Muscle (Sarkar et. al. 1996) Ability to inhibit cell growth, guanylate cyclase activity & ribosomal activity(West et. al. 1973) PPRC/INDIA 04
Inhibition of G-6-P, F-6-P in Liver stimulation of red cell and hepatic G-6-P dehydrogenase (Shibib et. al. 1993) To inhibit glucose transportat the brush border of the small intestine(Matsuda et. al. 1998) PPRC/INDIA 05
Fruits are tonic, stomachic, carminative and cooling Useful in diseases such as: * Diabetes mellitus * Gout and other diseases of the liver & spleen * Colic and fever PPRC/INDIA 07
* Wounds * Management of worms * Management of parasites * Measles & hepatitis * Peptic ulcer * Contraceptive * Rheumatism * Jaundice * Kidney stones * Piles * Malaria * Eczema PPRC/INDIA 08
Also known as ……… bitter cucumber bittermelon balsam pear karela A monoecious climber, stem slender, leaves sub - orbicular, flowers – yellow, fruits – 5 – 25 cm PPRC/INDIA 10
Pendulous fusiform beaked ribbed with numerous tubercles, brown seeds 13 – 16 mm long compressed, embedded in red pulp Plant cultivated as Vegetable crop Two types: hot season – Jethuya rainy season – Baramasiya PPRC/INDIA 11
Bitter melon has a long history of use as a hypoglycaemic agent in Asia, Africa, Latin America where plant extract considered as vegetable insulin which appears to have structural similarities to animal insulin (Dr. Ethan et. al. 2003) PPRC/INDIA 12
Seed: A clear, reddish brown oil yield …. 26.5 % Fatty acid of oil: alpha-elacostearic acid …. 46.7 % linoleic …. 7.7 %, oleic …. 15.8 % stearic …. 29.8 % Seed cake: 13.4 % totalproteins containing …….. PPRC/INDIA 14
Albumin …. 6.1 % ɑ globulin …. 6.1 % Glutelin …. 1.2 % Seed also contains an alkaloid &an anti-helminthic principle in the germ. They also contain urease PPRC/INDIA 15
Fruit: Moisture …. 83.2 % Protein…. 2.9 % Fat …. 1.0 % Carbohydrates …. 9.8 % Fibre …. 1.7 % Mineral matter …. 1.4 % PPRC/INDIA 16
Fruit: Calcium …. 50 mg / 100 g Phosphorus …. 140 mg / 100 g Iron …. 9.4 mg / 100 g Carotene(Vit A) …. 210 i.u. Thiamine …. 72 mg Nicolinic acid …. 0.5 mg PPRC/INDIA 17
* Anti-diabetic * Anti-cancer * Anti-viral * Anti-oxidant * Anti-obesity * Anti-helminthic * Immuno-modulatory * Hepato-renal * Hypolipidemic PPRC/INDIA 18
* Glycosides * Saponins * Alkaloids * Fixed oils * Triterpenes * Protein * Steroids * Kara compounds * Vitamin C * Vitamin A * Phosphorus * Iron PPRC/INDIA 19
* Inulinomimitic lectins * Charantin * Steroidalglycosides * Oleanolic acid 3-0-monodesmoside * Oleanolic acid 3-0-glucuronide PPRC/INDIA 20
Bitter gourd recipes PPRC/INDIA 21
* Masala Bharwan karela * Bittergourd curry * Bittergourd pitlai * Karela bhindi masala * Karela chips PPRC/INDIA 22
* Karela rice * Khatta meetha karela * Yammy karela * Green glow * Hot karela achaar PPRC/INDIA 28
* Fried karela boat * Crispy bittergourd * Stuffed karela in makhani gravy * Chatpati bittergourd bhujia * Karela mussalam PPRC/INDIA 29
Wash karela fruit under running water Slice with knife and scoop out the seeds & white flesh Make small cubes with knife Put all cubes in blender with some water PPRC/INDIA 34
Sieve juice through wire mesh Early morning drink this green juice (50 – 100 ml) on empty stomach Use honey, black pepper, chaat masala if required PPRC/INDIA 35
Lowers blood glucose due to chemical “charantin” It purifies blood, curing blood boils, itching due to blood poisoning Being high in fibre prevents constipationand many stomach disorders PPRC/INDIA 37
To lose body weight For curing pile, a painful disease To treat cholera in early stage To strengthen the immune system PPRC/INDIA 38
To alleviate eye problems and improve eyesight In Africa, Asia Karela fruit is used against gastrointestinaldisorders Leaves juice is helpful in Jaundice, Malaria R & D proves that Karela may be useful in solving leukemia problems PPRC/INDIA 39
Page 1. Bitter gourd Momordica charantia L. A boon to Human being on the globe Presented by Presented by Dr. Sudhakar KokateDr. Sudhakar Kokate
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