Bismarck 1862 3

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Published on December 7, 2007

Author: cooper

Source: authorstream.com

Bismarck’s Appointment:  Bismarck’s Appointment The Early Years 1862-63 Bismarck’s aims in 1862:  Bismarck’s aims in 1862 Read pp. 58-60 – which of the following most accurately describe Bismarck’s aims in 1862? To bring about German unity To weaken Austria To follow a traditional, military programme in Prussia To take advantage of opportunities presented to him To follow an idealistic liberal / nationalist agenda The Constitutional Crisis I:  The Constitutional Crisis I Liberals were very concerned with Bismarck’s appointment – they didn’t expect him to last long! “ Germany does not look to Prussian liberalism, but to its power. Bavaria, Wurttemburg, Baden can indulge in liberalism, but no one will expect them to undertake Prussia’s role….It is not through speeches and majority decisions that the great questions of the day are decided. That was the great mistake of 1848-9. It is by blood and iron.” Constitutional Crisis II:  Constitutional Crisis II This speech was meant to appease the liberals. For German nationalism, Prussia would need a strong army. The words backfired though and provoked the liberals into resistance. Constitutional Crisis III:  Constitutional Crisis III Bismarck went ahead and financed the plans out of existing taxation and when he raised new illegal taxes he threatened the liberals by saying that he had 200,000 soldiers ready to ‘persuade them’! For 4 years, this continued and von Roon’s plans were fully followed through. The liberals were powerless as they had no military force to do anything about it. They also failed to organise a tax boycott. The end of the crisis:  The end of the crisis Bismarck hoped that success in foreign policy would bring his opponents on side. After defeating Denmark in 1864 and Austria in 1866, the Prussian Parliament passed the Indemnity Bill which effectively legalised retrospectively, Bismarck’s actions. Bismarck’s prospects:  Bismarck’s prospects Take one section each of pp. 60-62. Brainstorm the factors that were on Bismarck’s side in 1862. Army Economy Zollverein Nationalism International situation The Polish Revolt I:  The Polish Revolt I In the 18C. Poland had been divided up between Russia, Prussia and Austria. In 1863 the inhabitants of Russian Poland rose up against the Tsar. Tsar Alexander II ordered the protest to be suppressed – Britain, France and Austria objected. The Polish Revolt II:  The Polish Revolt II Bismarck offered military assistance to Alexander II to gain Russian friendship The Tsar refused, but agreed that Prussia would hand over any Polish rebels who crossed the Prussian border Britain and France protested strongly THINK – why was Bismarck prepared to risk British and French hostility to gain Russian friendship? Polish Revolt III:  Polish Revolt III Bismarck withdrew the offer to Russia in the end which angered the Tsar. However the result was that although Bismarck had angered both sides, the likelihood of a Russian / French / British alliance was now unlikely. THINK – why was this important for Prussia? Conclusion….:  Conclusion…. Discuss: how do you rate Bismarck’s early decisions as Chief Minister of Prussia. Cooper argues that Bismarck’s first 3 years in office were a failure. Do you agree so far?

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