Bionic Fuel Microwave Depolymerisation

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Information about Bionic Fuel Microwave Depolymerisation
Technology

Published on November 19, 2008

Author: ulev

Source: slideshare.net

Description

MWDP or microwave depolymerization is a 2nd generation biomass/waste-to-fuel process going into commercialization in 2011.

1 Microwave Depolymerization of organic (hydro carbon containing) materials into light fuels MWDP REVISION 2011/111/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

2 BIONICS GUIDING PRINCIPLE The use of renewable biomass and organic waste for power and transportation fuel offers the only realistic answer to fossil energy becoming more scarce and expensive, while the demand in the developing world is constantly rising and the world faces potentially devastating climate change.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

3 OIL RESERVES ARE LIMITED… ??? Consumption 200711/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

4 …AND UNEQUALLY DISTRIBUTED11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

5 CLIMATE CHANGE IS HERE TODAY11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

6 URGENT NEED FOR SHORT TERM SOLUTIONS  Many technologies are under discussion, but few are available TODAY.  Many technologies proposed require a complete change of infrastructure and lifestyle with often severe social implications.  The time necessary for that kind of change is simply not available to avert a major global disaster.  Mankind needs solutions NOW that can later be merged with the implementation of long term plans and technologies.  Only a creative mix of all available possibilities to tackle the imminent threats can work.  It is the time NOW to start big change, instead of ongoing and endless discussions.  The BIONIC Group solutions stand for that CHANGE with a unique, flexible technology ready for commercial use.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

7 OVERVIEW BTL AND WTL TECHNOLOGIES  1. Generation  Plant oils  Biodiesel  Bioethanol  2. Generation  Gasification and FT  Direct liquefaction (Pyrolysis)  Synthetic fuels11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

8 FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS The search for alternative fuels over the last decade resurfaced past solutions like direct use of plant oil and refined products thereof like Biodiesel The so called Biodiesel (methylester) is a typical protagonist of that development. Current Bioethanol belongs into the same group. Based on a well know production process it has been used as transportation fuel 100 years ago.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

9 ENERGY FROM BIOMASS BTL (BIOMASS TO LIQUID)Processes for the conversion of biomass intousable transportation fuel have been around fora long time. However, the seemingly endlessavailability of cheap fuels from crude oil hasdiverted attention and research funds fromthose technologies.Through further development of thosetechnologies, like the introduction of new zeolitecatalysts and vastly improved reactordesigns, some BTL technologies becoming real(drop-in) alternatives for fossil oil and itsproducts.Soon many of these technologies can fullycompete regarding quality andeconomies, while having significant advantageson environmental issues.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

10 SECOND GENERATION BIOFUELS  Second generation biofuels can overcome practically all environmental and social issues of the first generation.  The complete plant or biomass waste is used instead of only extracted plant oils. Valuable plant oils can be returned to the food chain or higher value products.  The catalysts used are easy to produce or are naturally available in abundance across the globe.  The new technologies have positive energy balances saving up to 80% and more of the GHG emissons compared to fossil energy sources.  New agricultural and agriforestry technologies are being developed to supply feedstock sustainably.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

11 OTHER CONCEPTS VERSUS MWDP  Main representatives of second generation bio fuels are:  Fischer-Tropsch-Process  Standard Pyrolysis Processes  Thermo Catalytic Depolymerisation  The Bionic Microwave Depolymerisation  Cellulosic Ethanol Processes11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

12 MWDP = DIRECT LIQUEFACTION = DEPOLYMERISATION  It was well know to mankind for thousands of years, that under certain circumstances biomass converts into oil and coke. Today the underlying physical-chemical process is called pyrolysis or better thermal depolymerisation. It requires energy input in the form of heat under the exclusion of oxygen. Scientist even explain the formation of fossil oil with a natural occurrence of such a process 350 – 400 million years ago.  At least since the beginning of the last century it was also know, that in the presence of certain metals as catalysts this process would become a lot more efficient and controllable. For that reason we now call it thermo catalytic depolymerisation or TCDP. A very similar process is used successfully since the early forties to dramatically improve the yields of oil refineries in the production of Diesel and Petrol.  The BIONIC GROUP has for the first time combined TCDP with the independent cracking and depolymerisation abilities of certain high frequency microwaves. The fascinating result and a big leap forward was Bionic’s unique MWDP process.  Highly efficient catalysts are readily available today as so call designer zeolites. This allowed the development of a highly efficient and economical MWDP plant design for the production of clean liquid fuel products form biomass and waste that can be used in todays engines as drop-in fuels without any technical modifications necessary.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

13 ENERGY FROM WASTE Valuable energy products can be extracted through the intelligent use of waste materials. Typcally more than 70% of MSW (municpal solid waste) drymass can be converted into fuel with the MWDP process. Instead of destroying waste through enormously expensive and complex incineration, which still produces huge amounts of greenhouse gases, the MWDP technology allows for a clearly more efficient, reasonable and clean solution.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

14 IMPACT OF MWDP The MWDP process changes the basic composition of the energy contained in the carbo hydrates of the feedstock by converting it into bio-oil, char and gases, all with an exceptionally high energy content. In other words: Solid fuels contained in biomass and waste are transformed into liquid and coke at a indefinitly storable consistency. The resulting prooducts can be burned later for heat or power or upgraded to transportation fuels including jet fuel. Toxic organic materials contained in some plastic waste are mostly transformed into salts and neutralized. Minerals contained in the feedstock remain unchanged and can be further processed or disposed off.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

15 TECHNICAL PRINCIPLES OF MWDPIrradiation of the feedstock with high frequency microwave in the presence of aspecially developed catalyst a mechanical instability in the hydrocarbon moleculesis created. This phenomenon results in the breaking (cracking) of larger moleculesinto smaller units at a low temperature of only 280 Celsius which subsequentlyseperate from the reaction mass as an oil vapour.The oil vapours are subsequently condensed and cleaned. If necessary, additionalupgrading steps can be added to meet certain fuel standards. The end product is aclean, high quality oil with all the essential properties of diesel or jet fuel.That end product is storable, cold resistant and can be burned in all kinds ofengines.It can be used as transportation fuel, heating oil or blended with mineral oils. It isalso a valuable raw product for the petro chemical industry.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

16 CATALYST MECHANISMAt a process temperature of approx.280 C the catalyst used startscracking the hydro carbon H H H H H H H Hmolecules contained in the C C C C C C C Cfeedstock into shorter molecular H H H H H H H Hchains with the typical properties of 2 x C16 H32 H H H H H H H Hdiesel fuel. C C C C C C C C The remaining residues form a H H H H H H H H sterile sludge containing mainly carbon and anorganic substances 1 x C32 H64 originally present in the feedstock H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H like minerals and salts. Some of C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C those materials can be further processed into fertilizers. H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

17 FEEDSTOCK PREPARATION To achieve optimal results it is advisible to shredd or grind feedstock materials as fine as possible. Humid materials should be dried. Materials are then mixed with the catalyst and get pelletized before they are fed into the reactor. Such an approach has many advantages by standardizing the further process steps as all materials have a similar consistency when entering the reactor independant of their original state and form.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

18 APPLICATION EXAMPLES  Biomass to Bio-gasoil:  Decentralized conversion of energy crops  Forestry and agricultural waste materials  Decentralized processing of press cakes into gasoil  Processing of sugar beet and molasses  Waste materials to gasoil:  Processing of high caloric waste fractions (HCF)  Processing of MSW  Processing of organic hazardous waste11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

19 APPLICATION EXAMPLE IN PICTURES: Conversion of waste wood into Diesel Fuel and Biochar Wood chips pressed in pellets turn into 2 products: Bio gasoil* & Biochar** (Plus water and light gases for internal use) MWDP Conversion * Bio gasoil can be easily cleaned and processed into a standard Diesel fuel products ** Biochar is a highly valuable product for long term soil improvement and carbon sequestration strongly promoted by the UN at the climate change conference in Poznan, Poland . For details see www.biochar-international.org/home.html11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

20 ANY TYPE OF WOOD CAN BE CHIPPED AND PELLETIZED Feedstock preparation Wood biomass Wood chips Wood pellets (Certain proprietary additives may be added during the pelleting process to facilitate the MWDP processing)11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

21 PELLETS ARE PROCESSED IN BFT‘S MWDP REACTORS Processing equipment (at research facility in Guessing, Austria)11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

22 RAW PRODUCTS AFTER MWDP PROCESSING Bio-gasoil Biochar (a processing plant generates no further residues except water, emissions are limited to exhaust gas from CHP)11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

23 MWDP VS. TYPICAL PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUES  MWDP and typical pyrolysis are building on a similar chemo-physical principle: - Thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons under absence of oxygen -  Significant differences are setting MWDP apart:  Very low temperature requirement of around 280°C, equal to torrefaction (which does not produce any liquid phase) implies a high energy efficiency of MWDP.  Significantly higher energy content for bio oil and char than any fast pyrolysis technology known (oil: 40-45 MJ/kg, char: 25-30 MJ/kg).  MWDP bio oil quality greatly supersedes any typical pyrolysis oil even from fast pyrolysis, thus making it usable directly for heavy oil applications and easily upgradable to ASTM diesel and bio jetfuel (SPK).  MWDP yields (oil: 30-35%wt, char: 30-50%wt, gas: 10-30%wt) are incomparable with pyrolysis yields, due to factors like water and energy content and chemical composition.  MWDP oil yields at comparable product applications are better than those from pyrolysis processes.  MWDP char quality is superior for technical applications.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

24 CURRENT MICROFUEL REACTOR PROGRAM BFT currently has completed the development of three reactor types:  A lab batch reactor for feedstock testing and analysis, process development and demonstrations  A standard continuous reactor model MF480 with an output capacity of more than 1000 l/h.  A reduced version of the standard reactor MF192 with an output volume of approx. 500 l/h. (Can be upgraded to standard reactor at any time) (NB: Above mentioned output volumes are approximate and exemplary for certain common, dry biomass feedstocks. They can vary widely depending on feedstock properties like enery content)11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

25 COMPLEMENTARY R&D ACTIVITIES The following additional developments are close to approaching their commercialization status:  A microwave based clean process for liquefaction of coal.  An innovative process for bio oil cleaning and upgrading with the distinct ability to economically handle small volumes of feedstock and convert them safely into clean fuels meeting even the highest clean fuel standards like ultra low sulfur diesel.11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

26 THE MICROFUEL LAB REACTOR First Distillation Inside11/7/2012 Raw Distillate © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

27 THE CONTINUOUS PILOT REACTOR11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

28 CONTINUOUS REACTOR (PRINCIPLE DETAIL)11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

29 PILOT REACTOR COMPONENTS11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

30 LATEST ADVANCED REACTOR DESIGN MF48011/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

31 MICROFUEL PLANT MODEL11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

32 MICROFUEL PLANT MODEL11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

33 MICROFUEL PLANT PROCESS FLOW11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

34 MICROFUEL PLANT 4X CLUSTER11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

35 FROM BIOMASS WASTE TO FUEL AND BIOCHAR Diesel Fuel Biochar catalystMarketVegetable OilCrude Oil 5000 Ltr/hrRefined OIL capacity11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

36 FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE TO FUEL municipal waste Diesel fuel microfuel plant >60% efficiency11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

37 CONTACT INFORMATION Bionic Laboratories GmbH Helwigstr. 41 64521 Gross-Gerau, Germany +49 1525 33 40 500 info@bionic-lab.de Visit us at bionic-world.net11/7/2012 © 2008-2011 Bionic Fuel Knowledge Partners Inc., Oswego, NY

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