Published on April 27, 2014
Biomes of Guatemala Sources: http://www.birdwatching.com.gt/birdwatching%20guatemala/biomas-de-guatemala.html http://birding.visitguatemala.com/biomes
It is characterized by its plain land, with poor soils but exuberant jungles, and a very diverse fauna. In this biome several type of vegetation are present, such as high- and low-altitude forest, savanna, and wetlands systems (from lakes and flooding). In general, a Tropical Humid biome is defined by a very hot and humid climate, an altitude below 2953 feet above sea level, and no clear difference between the rainy season and dry season. The dominant vegetation type is broad-leafed trees, and there are also some pines (Pinus caribbea).
Somehow similar to a Tropical Humid Forest, but with much higher levels of rainfall and atmospheric humidity, this ecosystem ranges from sea level to 1,300 m (4,290 ft) in altitude. It is the wettest part of the country, and holds several ecosystems, such as bogs, floodable forests, wetlands, estuaries, Caribbean marine coastlands, tall evergreen forests, savannahs and associated grasslands.
With a great complexity in its floristic composition, it is located on mountain slopes, among 3600 to 9514 feet above sea level. This habitat presents a wide biodiversity and vegetation such as: avocados, pine, oaks, mosses and tree ferns and also you can observe a wide diversity of epiphytes* due to the high humidity. The climate is temperate and humid during the day, but the nights can be somewhat cold. The high level of rain is characteristic of this biome. *An epiphyte is a plant that grows upon another plant (such as a tree), and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it instead of the structure it is fastened to. It grows on another plant without being a parasite.
The Mountain Forest has few species, with only one stratum differentiated and a very poor forest understory. However, several endemic plants and fauna can be found in this biome, which occupies all the central highlands of Guatemala between altitudinal ranges of 6560 to 13780 feet above sea level. The climate is usually cold, and you can observe seasons related with northern latitudes.
It has a discontinuous distribution through the central eastern region of the country, in valleys surrounded by mountains that generate the phenomenon known as rain shadow, creating dry zones as a consequence. The vegetation is typical from arid zones, with abundant cacti and thorn plants, generally deciduous (that means the loss of leaves during the dry season). This biome is located among 328 to 3280 feet above sea level, with a short but very well-marked rainy season between the months of June to October.
This biome, located in the Pacific region known in Guatemala as “Boca Costa”, runs through slopes of the volcanic chain. With an altitudinal range from 2600 to 3900 feet above sea level, there is diverse vegetation and a moderate warm temperature, where the volcanic chain serves as a wind barrier for the humid winds that come from the south; this biome is nevertheless an unusually rainy place.
It is located along the Pacific Coast, with an altitudinal range from sea level to nearly 2900 feet above sea level, with predominantly warm weather; the original vegetation (deciduous forest, evergreen forest, savannas, and mangroves) has been transformed and replaced by agricultural landscapes, although in some areas you can still observe remnants of the original vegetation, and rivers going down the volcanic chain towards the sea.
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