Published on June 27, 2014
BiomelioratiBiomeliorati onon Living inLiving in HarmonyHarmony with Nature!with Nature! Harnessing Bio-Harnessing Bio- Methanation forMethanation for Energy Generation &Energy Generation & EnvironmentEnvironment Protection.Protection. Co- Generation of Organic Waste Bio Reactor Methane + Soil Amendment Re-Mediated Water
Introduction:Introduction: Most of the world’s public water hasMost of the world’s public water has become undrinkable due to sewagebecome undrinkable due to sewage infiltration into groundwater. Unlessinfiltration into groundwater. Unless something is done now to restoresomething is done now to restore the environment and curb pollution,the environment and curb pollution, the future will be very challenged inthe future will be very challenged in terms of meeting the world’s waterterms of meeting the world’s water demandsdemands
Sewerage Statistics:Sewerage Statistics: It is estimated that a community of 10,000It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-acre inches ofpeople can generate 40-acre inches of sewage effluent per day or an equivalent of 1sewage effluent per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater.million gallons of wastewater. Sewage: 1 person = 100 gallons pd = 1.46Sewage: 1 person = 100 gallons pd = 1.46 acre inches paacre inches pa 25 persons = 2,500 gallons pd = 8 kWhrs pd25 persons = 2,500 gallons pd = 8 kWhrs pd 2.4 kWhrs = 1 x 100 W Bulb = 24 hrs2.4 kWhrs = 1 x 100 W Bulb = 24 hrs
Types of Liquid Waste Rural Sewage Municipal Liquid Waste Agro-Industrial Effluent
Definitions:Definitions: Environment:Environment: Encompasses theEncompasses the Inorganic Biosphere that we inhabit; theInorganic Biosphere that we inhabit; the inter-dependent Organic Life Forms andinter-dependent Organic Life Forms and the Life Supporting Ecological Systemsthe Life Supporting Ecological Systems that have evolved to work in harmony inthat have evolved to work in harmony in order to sustain Life.order to sustain Life. Biological:Biological: Taken to mean all livingTaken to mean all living creatures be they zoological or botanical.creatures be they zoological or botanical. Bioenvironmental Management:Bioenvironmental Management: TheThe attempt to minimize the impact on theattempt to minimize the impact on the environment of Biological activity can beenvironment of Biological activity can be termed as Bioenvironmental Management.termed as Bioenvironmental Management.
Biological amelioration/ remediation or usingBiological amelioration/ remediation or using Biological means to improve or rectify existingBiological means to improve or rectify existing harmful conditions. A more cost effective method asharmful conditions. A more cost effective method as compared to incineration or physical and chemicalcompared to incineration or physical and chemical remediation methods.remediation methods. Biomelioration/Bioremediation:Biomelioration/Bioremediation: The amelioration of our degraded environment is bestThe amelioration of our degraded environment is best carried out by employing biological remedial measurescarried out by employing biological remedial measures that are low-cost and ecologically sustainable.that are low-cost and ecologically sustainable. Solid and Liquid Waste is increasingly beingSolid and Liquid Waste is increasingly being processed by Microbial Agents (Bioaugmentation) andprocessed by Microbial Agents (Bioaugmentation) and Plants (Phytoremediation) to provide recycled waterPlants (Phytoremediation) to provide recycled water for aqua, horti and agriculture. Disposal of waste isfor aqua, horti and agriculture. Disposal of waste is more effective where there is partial recovery ofmore effective where there is partial recovery of energy and salvageable material.energy and salvageable material.
History of BiogasHistory of Biogas 10th century BC - Used to heat water in10th century BC - Used to heat water in AssyriaAssyria 16th century – Used to heat water in16th century – Used to heat water in PersiaPersia 17th century - Flammable gases found to17th century - Flammable gases found to be emitted from decaying organic matterbe emitted from decaying organic matter 1776-1778 – Methane discovered and1776-1778 – Methane discovered and isolated by Alessandroisolated by Alessandro Volta.Relationship between the amountVolta.Relationship between the amount of decaying organic matter and theof decaying organic matter and the amount of flammable gas producedamount of flammable gas produced
History, contd.History, contd. 1970s - Energy crisis renewed interest in1970s - Energy crisis renewed interest in ADAD 1970s - 80s - Lack of understanding and1970s - 80s - Lack of understanding and overconfidence resulted in numerousoverconfidence resulted in numerous failuresfailures China, India and Thailand reported 50%China, India and Thailand reported 50% failure ratesfailure rates Failures of farm digesters in U.S.Failures of farm digesters in U.S. approached 80%approached 80%
Reasons for FailuresReasons for Failures Inadequate operator training.Inadequate operator training. Management failures.Management failures. Benefits oversold.Benefits oversold. Operations too small to justify digester.Operations too small to justify digester. High costs of Infrastructure.High costs of Infrastructure. Excessive operating costs.Excessive operating costs. Unreliable market for biogas.Unreliable market for biogas. Impurity of Gas produced.Impurity of Gas produced. Lack of appropriate microbial inoculation.Lack of appropriate microbial inoculation. Prevailing Contractor System.Prevailing Contractor System.
What’s Different Now:What’s Different Now: Improved designs and better understanding of O&MImproved designs and better understanding of O&M requirements.requirements. Cogeneration to raise volume of Methane captured.Cogeneration to raise volume of Methane captured. High prices for liquid fuel & natural gas.High prices for liquid fuel & natural gas. Market evolving for biogas energy.Market evolving for biogas energy. Microbe culture in Laboratories.Microbe culture in Laboratories. Methods of scrubbing gas produced along-withMethods of scrubbing gas produced along-with valuable by-products evolved.valuable by-products evolved. Possibility of deploying Multi-Use, Integrated Plant toPossibility of deploying Multi-Use, Integrated Plant to address different problems simultaneously.address different problems simultaneously. Revolutionary new Low-cost, Low-carbon, Super-Revolutionary new Low-cost, Low-carbon, Super- Insulated, DisasterInsulated, Disaster -proof Construction developed in-proof Construction developed in Pakistan.Pakistan. System of CDM/ Carbon Credits created.System of CDM/ Carbon Credits created.
Advantages.Advantages. The odor potential of a well digestedThe odor potential of a well digested waste is considerably reduced.waste is considerably reduced. Further Treatment & BioaugmentationFurther Treatment & Bioaugmentation can eliminate foul odors.can eliminate foul odors. Digested waste has slightly less fertilizerDigested waste has slightly less fertilizer value than non-digested waste, but it isvalue than non-digested waste, but it is more readily available to plants. It ismore readily available to plants. It is simply converted to a more useful form.simply converted to a more useful form.
Disadvantages.Disadvantages. A methane digester is large andA methane digester is large and expensive. The expense stems from theexpensive. The expense stems from the fact that it must be well-insulated, air-fact that it must be well-insulated, air- tight and supplied a source of heat. Thetight and supplied a source of heat. The size of a conventional digester is equal tosize of a conventional digester is equal to 15-20 times the daily waste volume15-20 times the daily waste volume produced.produced.
A very high level of management is required.A very high level of management is required. A methane digester can be extremely sensitive toA methane digester can be extremely sensitive to environmental changes, and a biological upsetenvironmental changes, and a biological upset may take months to correct. Methane generationmay take months to correct. Methane generation ceases or is very low during an upset.ceases or is very low during an upset. Start-up--usually the most critical phase ofStart-up--usually the most critical phase of methane generation-is difficult. Methane-methane generation-is difficult. Methane- producing bacteria are very slow-growing, andproducing bacteria are very slow-growing, and several weeks are required to establish a largeseveral weeks are required to establish a large bacterial population.bacterial population. Methane is difficult to store, since at normalMethane is difficult to store, since at normal temperatures the gas can be compressed but nottemperatures the gas can be compressed but not liquefied without special, very expensiveliquefied without special, very expensive equipment.equipment. Methane can form an explosive mixture ifMethane can form an explosive mixture if exposed to air.exposed to air.
Environmental BenefitsEnvironmental Benefits Reduces odor fromReduces odor from land applicationland application Protects waterProtects water resourcesresources Reduces pathogensReduces pathogens Weed seed reductionWeed seed reduction Disease vector controlDisease vector control after digestionafter digestion Greenhouse GasGreenhouse Gas reductionreduction
Biological treatment is the mostBiological treatment is the most economical of waste treatments availableeconomical of waste treatments available today.today. In biological systems, the dynamics areIn biological systems, the dynamics are biochemical as opposed to chemical, andbiochemical as opposed to chemical, and the active agents are living entities.the active agents are living entities. Where one would have to increase theWhere one would have to increase the quantity of chemicals proportionally toquantity of chemicals proportionally to deal with a higher load of reactant, in adeal with a higher load of reactant, in a biological system the biological additivebiological system the biological additive can grow to help compensate forcan grow to help compensate for increased loadings.increased loadings.
NATURE NURTURES!NATURE NURTURES! We must NurtureWe must Nurture Nature in order toNature in order to ensure that itensure that it continues to nurturecontinues to nurture US!US! 2121stst CenturyCentury Challenges have toChallenges have to be faced with lo-be faced with lo- cost, innovativecost, innovative and eco friendly,and eco friendly, Hi-Tech.Hi-Tech. Interventions.Interventions.
Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Amino Acids Fatty Acids Sugars Carbonic Acid Alcohols Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide Ammonia Hydrogen Acetic Acid Carbon Dioxide Methane Carbon Dioxide Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Methanogenesis
The septic system is aThe septic system is a biological process.biological process. Like any living thing, it has certainLike any living thing, it has certain nutritional requirements to functionnutritional requirements to function properly and functions best in a suitableproperly and functions best in a suitable environment.environment. However, the best first step in optimizingHowever, the best first step in optimizing the performance of a septic system is tothe performance of a septic system is to have a complete ecosystem of thehave a complete ecosystem of the organisms required for the most completeorganisms required for the most complete breakdown of the waste.breakdown of the waste.
SuccessfulSuccessful Bioaugmentation TotalBioaugmentation Total System ManagementSystem Management If the microbiological population can be viewedIf the microbiological population can be viewed as a workforce, then the consultant or systemas a workforce, then the consultant or system manager is responsible for keeping themanager is responsible for keeping the workforce productive.workforce productive. He must maintain the integrity of the microbialHe must maintain the integrity of the microbial ecosystem.ecosystem. The system manager must provide anThe system manager must provide an acceptable work environment by controlling theacceptable work environment by controlling the key system managers such as pH, temperaturekey system managers such as pH, temperature and oxygen levels.and oxygen levels.
He has to know when to lay off workersHe has to know when to lay off workers through wasting to keep the populationthrough wasting to keep the population young and vital.young and vital. The successful system manager knowsThe successful system manager knows when to hire new workers to providewhen to hire new workers to provide special skills not found in his workforce.special skills not found in his workforce. Finally, he must compensate them withFinally, he must compensate them with nutrients to ensure good growth and anutrients to ensure good growth and a healthy population.healthy population. Bioaugmentation is the mechanism toBioaugmentation is the mechanism to provide these skills workers.provide these skills workers.
Tensegrity is a contraction ofTensegrity is a contraction of tensional integrity structuring.tensional integrity structuring. “Tensegrity describes a structural-“Tensegrity describes a structural- relationship principle in whichrelationship principle in which structural shape is guaranteed by thestructural shape is guaranteed by the finitely closed, comprehensivelyfinitely closed, comprehensively continuous, tensional behaviors ofcontinuous, tensional behaviors of the system and not by thethe system and not by the discontinuous and exclusively localdiscontinuous and exclusively local compressional member behaviors.compressional member behaviors.
The Mongol Tent was named “Ger”, which gave rise to our Urdu word “Ghar” and was adapted by the Turks as the “Yurt”, the source of our language “Urdu” arising from the plural “Yurtu” or group of tents.
Sizing a Plant:Sizing a Plant: REQUIREMENTS Small Large Single Chamber Double Chamber Amount & Type Of Raw Material Used Single Stage Double Stage Artificial Heating & Agitation Multiple Digesters Artificial Heating & Agitation Operating Cycle of the Plant Size of Digester Availability of Raw Material Suitability of R aw Material
Benefits of Composting: Serves as the principal storehouse for anions such as nitrates, sulfates, borates,Serves as the principal storehouse for anions such as nitrates, sulfates, borates, molybdates and chlorides that are essential for plant growth.molybdates and chlorides that are essential for plant growth. Increases CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity) of soil by a factor of 5 to 10 timesIncreases CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity) of soil by a factor of 5 to 10 times that of clay.that of clay. Acts as a buffer against rapid changes caused by acidity; alkalinity; salinity;Acts as a buffer against rapid changes caused by acidity; alkalinity; salinity; pesticides and toxic heavy metals.pesticides and toxic heavy metals. Supplies food for beneficial soil organisms like earthworms, symbiotic NitrogenSupplies food for beneficial soil organisms like earthworms, symbiotic Nitrogen fixing bacteria and mycorrihize (beneficial fungus).fixing bacteria and mycorrihize (beneficial fungus). Serves as recycling sink for organic waste and green manures (animal manure,Serves as recycling sink for organic waste and green manures (animal manure, crop residues, household refuse and leguminous plants collected within andcrop residues, household refuse and leguminous plants collected within and outside the farm) and thus keeps environment clean and hygienic.outside the farm) and thus keeps environment clean and hygienic. Softens the soil by introducing fibrous matter.Softens the soil by introducing fibrous matter. Increases soil water retention capacity.Increases soil water retention capacity. Makes plants more resistant to pests and disease through improved nutrientMakes plants more resistant to pests and disease through improved nutrient availability and uptake, resulting in healthier plants with strongavailability and uptake, resulting in healthier plants with strong immune systems.immune systems. Prevents soil acidification.Prevents soil acidification.
UK Estimate:UK Estimate: If just 5.5 million tons of food waste was treated by AD we could generate between 477 and 761 GWh of electricity each year – enough to meet the needs of up to 164,000 households. Compared to composting the same amount of food waste, treating it with AD would save between 0.22 and 0.35 million tons of CO2 equivalent, assuming the displaced source is gas-fired electricity generation. But at the moment we only AD 50,000 tons of food waste each year - 0.4 per cent of the UK s food‟ waste. ERM (2007), “Carbon Balances and Energy Impacts of the Management of UK Waste Streams”
Moving Towards The Future?
Conclusion:Conclusion: By now, I am sure that all will agree that theBy now, I am sure that all will agree that the discussed exercise is not only badly needed, itdiscussed exercise is not only badly needed, it is also highly desirable and affordable.is also highly desirable and affordable. A CMD Project that commands carbon CreditsA CMD Project that commands carbon Credits is the requirement of the day.is the requirement of the day. In this manner, given seed money for initialIn this manner, given seed money for initial establishment, a recycling of Capital along withestablishment, a recycling of Capital along with Socially Generated Waste is made possible.Socially Generated Waste is made possible. In this case we do not have to ask “How muchIn this case we do not have to ask “How much will it cost, rather ask what will it cost not towill it cost, rather ask what will it cost not to implement the Project?”implement the Project?”
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