Biomass part 2

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Information about Biomass part 2
Education

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: luie

Source: authorstream.com

Logging residues:  Logging residues Regular forest management (by means of thinning) produces various assortments, including saw logs, fibre wood, traditional fire wood and energy wood Harvesting wood for energy only is extremely rare although a tendency in the market is recognised that more and more specialised companies appear. Top wood and branches and thin stems from pre-commercial thinning, normally are left behind in the forest (yet they represent about 20% of each harvest) In Sweden and Finland they collect and bundle top wood and branches Top wood and branches NL:  Top wood and branches NL Potential: 20% of 2 million m3 =400.000 ton/a Forest owners are being told that dead wood contributes to the biodiversity. Studies in Scandinavia proof that there is no significant difference between sites with whole tree harvest and sites where top and lop is left. (Rosenberg and Jacobson 2004) The same study also proofs that slash removal has no significant effect on the nutrient balance There is no infrastructure for the collection of top wood and branches in the Netherlands Power plants still have plenty of other biomass although this may change rapidly in the near future as the market shows a growing shortage in various competing branches. Pruning and felling from parks and landscape plantings:  Pruning and felling from parks and landscape plantings Most biomass from pruning is chipped and used as mulch in parks and gardens. Cost/Benefit ratio is more than one. Felling from parks and landscape plantings like lanes and woods on the road sides are more and more used for biomass as volumes are large enough. Dedicated energy crops 1:  Dedicated energy crops 1 Easy to plant and easy to harvest. No large investments are needed to set up an energy plantation. Most equipment is tractor mounted and easy to use. More added `bio/diversity value`. Results from an Inventory in the Flevo polders show that the bio mass plantation contain over a 100 species. This despite the general opinion that energy plantations are “ecological deserts”. Dedicated energy crops 2:  Dedicated energy crops 2 Multi purpose use. Erosion control in riparian zones, protection against wind erosion, minimizing leakage and runoff of fertilizer and chemical remedies into rivers and ground water. Cleaning of sewage water and sludge. Buffer between high conservation nature reserves and other areas. Screen between recreational areas and other. Interesting yields. Results of recent study that in in the Dutch situation energy plantations of Willow yield up to 15 Ton dry matter/ha/year Planting with a step planter:  Planting with a step planter Weed control a necessity:  Weed control a necessity Two year old crop:  Two year old crop Harvest with a `Bender`:  Harvest with a `Bender` Woody biomass supply chain:  Woody biomass supply chain Production Harvest (logs) Transport and logistics of logs Storage on timber yard Comminute, drying, blending (chips, pellets) Delivery at gate power plant Residues from nature conservation 1:  Residues from nature conservation 1 Management of areas with high nature conservation values is aimed on conserving and or enhancing nature values. In most cases management activities include mowing, cutting peat or sod, and removal. Residues from nature conservation 2:  Residues from nature conservation 2 Residues are used for composting and sold to garden centres etc. This is only possible when the biomass meets strict chemical properties. As much residues do not meet the chemical properties, required by legislation, material is disposed as waste but in most cases residues are just stockpiled in the field waiting for an answer. Residues from nature conservation.:  Residues from nature conservation. Neglected potential. Research by Alterra on the potential biomass production by the Dutch state forest service show an average production capacity of 4.2 ton dry matter/ha/year. This equals a total of 31.786 ton dry matter/year from the Dutch state forest service areas. Residues from other vegetation like road side banks, river and canal banks, etc.:  Residues from other vegetation like road side banks, river and canal banks, etc. These types of biomass are in most cases medium to heavily polluted. Grass from roadsides is used for methanol production but under limited and restricted conditions. Biomass is easy to collect and to distribute. High potential with a big technical challenge to solve the problems with pollution. III. Conclusions and discussion.:  III. Conclusions and discussion. Weak spots of biomass Technical developments Does it work How to enhance forest biomass Technical measures Adapting forest management Weak spots of biomass:  Weak spots of biomass A multitude of biomass forms, available from industry, recycling, the forest and nature conservation areas and other vegetation. This equals almost the amount conversion routes to energy. Conversion to energy is technically possible but the costs are relatively high. Logistics. Collection, storage, processing, storage, distribution. Technical developments:  Technical developments In order to tackle these problems new techniques are developed over the past years. Green methanol. (gas) Pyrolise.(oil) Torrefaction.(`charcoal pellets`) These developments do not tackle all problems. Conversion costs and logistics are still unsolved. Does it work?:  Does it work? Successful deployment of bio energy in Finland, Sweden, Austria Try out experiments (R&D) in Germany, UK, NL and USA Bio energy has potential for the (near) future, but is still in its initial stages of market penetration: fossil fuels are still cheaper! How to enhance forest biomass?:  How to enhance forest biomass? Still plenty of wastes and residues available. No actions needed? Large scale imports of biomass? Dutch forest: only 55% of mean annual increment is being harvested at present: a huge potential! Dedicated energy crops only an option on the long term? Technical measures to increase biomass yields:  Technical measures to increase biomass yields (1) Afforestation and reforestation on former agricultural lands? (2) Establishment of fast growing tree plantations? (3) Establishment of dedicated energy crops? (4) Adaptation of forest management towards increased harvest? (5) Changing the current use of wood? (6) Restoration of degraded forests? (7) Favouring production forestry? (8) Management of other wooded lands for increased wood production? (9) Adaptation of the management of other nature conservation areas towards increased harvest? Adapting forest management:  Adapting forest management By harvesting more of the annual increment? By recovering tree tops and branches from final felling? By pre-commercial thinning (un-merchantable trees)? By changing the current forest management systems into market driven systems? More info?:  More info? www.probos.net

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