Biomass

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Information about Biomass
Science-Technology

Published on March 9, 2009

Author: arasarn

Source: authorstream.com

Renewable EnergyWorkshop : Renewable EnergyWorkshop Biomass From Forest, Farm & City Biomass : Biomass Forest Farm City Forest Biomass : Forest Biomass What’s out there ?? : What’s out there ?? Slash Non-Merchantable Log Merchandizing Defect More !! : More !! Windrows represent about 15% of the total stand area Windrows And More !! : Chipper Frass Chips Logging Debris And More !! And More !! : And More !! Insects Fire Disease Blowdown And More !! : And More !! Low Quality Stands And More !! : And More !! Plantation Thinnings Plus Heritage Piles : Plus Heritage Piles Up Close Lot’s of Stuff 40 feet What’s Available ? What’s the Benefit ? : What’s Available ? What’s the Benefit ? What’s the Outlook ? Annual Forest Depletion : What’s the Outlook ? Annual Forest Depletion Millions of Cubic Metres All Working Groups – mid-90’s ? Climate Change ? Stress ? Mortality Yes !! Can We Expect Increased Mortality? Climate Change Induced Stress ? Mortality : Climate Change Induced Stress ? Mortality BC Stress & Mortality Over 600 MM³ killed by Mountain Pine Beetle Area nearly equal to the size of Wisconsin – 60,000 sq. mi. Mortality directly linked to climate change. No -40°C ? Larva survive Beetle is in Alberta! Risk of migration to Jack Pine is real. Stressed Forests Stress induced by global warming followed insect and disease infestations, coupled with persistent fires, have shifted forests from CO2 sinks to CO2 sources. Expected to last until 2022 – perhaps much longer Further, the risk of permafrost melting and peat warming in the Boreal due to climate change and increased exposure threaten a “carbon bomb”. Recall, this is already occurring in Alaska – we are not immune. Farm Biomass : Farm Biomass Switch Grass - a Weed ? : Switch Grass - a Weed ? Slide 16: At 3 Years !! At 3 Months After Coppicing Willow: Growin’ Like a Weed ! Pasture & Abandon Land Available for Planting In Ontario 1.2 Million ha !!! Municipal Solid Waste“MSW” : Municipal Solid Waste“MSW” Petroleum – Just Old Biomass : Petroleum – Just Old Biomass + Heat A Long Time Pressure = Old, Old Biomass Different Types of Old Biomass : Different Types of Old Biomass C&D Wood Waste Mixed Plastics Medical Waste E - Waste Tires Biomass Processing & Densification : Biomass Processing & Densification “Processing and Densification of biomass, with the exception of fire wood, is necessary to eliminate debris (rock, metal, plastics, etc.), improve handling, reduce transportation costs and meet specifications and/or standards of the converting technology employed.” Processing Requirements : Processing Requirements Densification : Densification Chips Liquids Wood or Grass Pellets or Brickets Grains Fire Wood Natural Energy Density Comparisons : Energy Density Comparisons Moisture Densification Innovation Replace Fossil Fuels Energy Use : Energy Use BTU: British Thermal Unit = heat required to Raise Temperature of 1 pound of water 1?F Size of Your Home Square Feet Thousand BTU’s/Day 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 30 60 90 120 1kWh = 3,400 BTU’s. A 2,000 sq.ft. home using 60,000 BTU is equivalent 17.6 kWh/day Relative Comparison of AlternativeEnergy Sources : Relative Comparison of AlternativeEnergy Sources Propane Heating Oil Electricity Grain (Corn) Wood Pellets Natural Gas Fire Wood Cost per Million BTU’s 30 20 10 0 Ontario Source Oregon Source 40 Comparative “Heating” Costs forA 2000 Sq Ft Home for 2008 : Comparative “Heating” Costs forA 2000 Sq Ft Home for 2008 Propane Heating Oil Electricity Grain (Corn) Natural Gas Fire Wood Heat Cost – 2000 sq ft Home 3000 2000 1000 Wood Pellets Source: Grain Store Supplier Efficiency Comparisons : Efficiency Comparisons “The amount of energy harvested from 1 hectare of land minus all energy inputs to produce a fuel shows wide variation” Efficiency Comparisons : Efficiency Comparisons Net Energy Yield (GJ/ha) Bio-diesel (rapseed) 2nd Generation Bio-fuels (FT) Bio-Gas as Traffic Fuel (corn) Short Rotation Forestry (Direct Combustion) Ethanol From Grain Bio-Gas Electricity (corn) Bio-Gas CHP (corn) 50 0 100 150 200 1GJ = 950,000 BTU = 278 kWh Efficiency + Cost Comparisons : Efficiency + Cost Comparisons First, there is not sufficient quantity to serve all 3 markets. Second, the current subsidy make up does not favor biomass. Third, some uses, depending on scale, are more efficient and effective than others. Why not use biomass options for electricity production, car fuels and heating? Efficiency Comparisons: Biomass to Heat : Efficiency Comparisons: Biomass to Heat Pellets Electricity Biofuels (FT) 80 40 150 75 0 % Energy Loss In Converting Biomass Subsidy/MW In Canada Dollars Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum What do you See ? : What do you See ? Energy loss and subsidy distribution are closely linked. Why do the most inefficient energy systems get the highest subsidy?? Who foots the bill ? US! Efficiency Comparisons : Efficiency Comparisons Note: A 10 kW electric “heating” system can be replaced by a simple pellet stove (efficiency >90%) for $3,000 Client cost = $105/MW versus $242/MW for direct heating with electricity Producing electricity from biomass without using the heat is the most inefficient use of primary energy…… We Need to Change Our Energy Use Patterns : We Need to Change Our Energy Use Patterns Electricity Oil Natural Gas Solar-H Biomass Hydro Wind Solar-E Transport Heating Cooling Light Information Power Inefficient Efficient Technology : Technology Smaller Scale Use + Home & Farm Fire Wood : Fire Wood Free Standing Outdoor – Space & Water Heat Insert Pellets : Pellets Free Standing Furnace/Boiler with Auto-Feed Wood Pellets Biomass – Heat Only : Biomass – Heat Only Downdraft Gasifier How it Works Natural Gas Furnace Bio-Trend Systems Inc. Anaerobic Digestion“Cow Power” : Anaerobic Digestion“Cow Power” Technology : Technology Larger Scale Use + Institutional, Industrial, Cooperatives Co-Generation“Heat and Power” : Co-Generation“Heat and Power” Boiler Steam Steam Turbine Generator Process Heat Heating Cooling Blowers Green Certificates $$$ from Fly Ash Waste Gasification“Hot Air” : Gasification“Hot Air” Combustion & Gasification Gas Separation GasTurbine Waste Heat Boiler Steam Turbine Ash Waste Tars & Other Particulates Gas Clean-up # 2 Catalyst Treatment Alcohols Biomass MSW Note: “Gasifiers” that use the gas internally (close-coupled) are,“technically”, combustion units. Gas Clean-up # 1 Pyrolosis“Bio-Crude” : Pyrolosis“Bio-Crude” Drying Sizing Pyrolysis Co-Gen for Heat & Power Bio-Oil 75% Char 12% Gas 13% Industrial Chemicals Process Energy Process Energy Biomass Feedstock For Gasification Cleaning The term “bio-oil” is a misnomer. The liquid is not miscible in oil, it has 25% water, it’s acidic, it separates and requires heated storage Pyrolysis: Hi Value – Hi Return Waste Remediation + Energy Production : Pyrolysis: Hi Value – Hi Return Waste Remediation + Energy Production Carbon Black Miscible in oil Less than .05% Water Minimal Odor 18.0 K BTU/lb pH neutral Stores well Steel Belts Comparable to #2 Fuel Oil Oil from Tires Realistic Burning OptionsforToday : Realistic Burning OptionsforToday Market Ready Options : Market Ready Options Firewood Wood Stove/Boiler: In home – space heat. Basic combustion unit In yard – space and/or water heat. Combustion or Close-Coupled Gasifer) Lower cost, particularly using family labor Suited for folks with time they can dedicate to bucking, splitting, stacking and lugging, lugging and stacking, cleaning house, etc. Pellets (Wood or Grain) Pellet Stove: Space Heat Cleaner, less ash/particulates, pellet supply, pellet quality (white vs. brown) Pellet Furnace: Space and/or Water Heat Buildings between 2,500 to 50,000 sq ft Heating capacity less than 800 kW (Chips best for 800kW, or larger) Examples Home: 2,000 sq. ft. ? 60,000 BTU (17.6 kWh/day) (Pellet Stove) Small: 12,000 sq. ft. ? 420,000 BTU (123 kWh/day) (Pellet Furnace) Medium: 105, 000 sq. ft. ? 2,500,000 BTU (Chip Boiler) Close-up – Living with Wood : Close-up – Living with Wood Northern Ontario Home – 3,000 sq. ft. – Two wood stoves Tandum Load = 22 face cords = $700 (annual) Saw = $600 (10 year life) Bucking and Stacking = 10 days, 1 person = $1,000, or in-kind Chains, Chain oil, Gas, Maintenance, etc. = $250 (annual) Splitter + 2 people for 2 days = $340, or in-kind Hauling and Stacking – 2 people = $200, or in-kind Daily hauling from wood pile to house = In-kind Ash removal – 1 person once a week = In-kind Chimney cleaning – 1 person twice a year = $200, or in-kind Comfort - Priceless Note: Assumes neighborhood labor…..kids at 10 bucks an hour Household Consumption : Household Consumption We Have Choices -- Questions : We Have Choices -- Questions UNCONTROLLED CONTROLLED AND RECOVERED Wood Pellets Liquid X-TRA : X-TRA Biomass UseMaintaining Long-term Site Productivity : Retention of Nutrients By Component (Nutrients/Gram Tissue) Plant Components % of Total Biomass Retained, or consumed on the Site, Based on a 60 Year Rotation!! Very High High Moderate Low Medium High High Low Leaves Small Branches (Twigs) Large Branches Stem (Large Woody Debris Policy) Stump Large Roots Small Roots - Stump Taken Fine Roots - Stump Taken Greater than 99% Greater than 90% Greater than 35% 20% to 40% 100% 100% 100% 100% Slash Stump Biomass UseMaintaining Long-term Site Productivity Issues: Nutrient Cycling – Moisture Retention – Microbial Activity - Diversity Close-up – Small Business/Institution : Close-up – Small Business/Institution Forest Education Interpretive Center – 12,000 sq. ft. 2005 Furnace System Cost = $45,000 US Technology: 140,000 BTU/hr wood pellet fired hot water boilers, or about a 25 kW system Fuel Source: Local sawmill waste Pellets fed by augers into 3 boilers (2 in operation, 1 stand-by) with average 300,000 BTU/hr peak heating load Annual Heat Expense: $6,360 ($265/ton at 24 tons/year, or an average of 132 pounds/day) Slide 53: 1MW = 3.4 million BTU ? service 750 to 1000 homes 1kW = 3,400 BTU 25 kW = 140,000 BTU ? service 18 to 25 homes 100 kW = 340,000 BTU ? service 75 to 100 homes

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