Published on February 28, 2014
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES By: MARIA KRISIA FAE DELOS REYES DE ASIS, BSN-RN
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM -Made up of skin and its accessory structures (hair, nails, glands, muscles, nerves) -Protects the body, helps maintain a constant body temperature, and provides sensory information about the surrounding environment -Easily inspected and exposed to infection, disease, and injury -Can also reflect emotions (frowning, blushing) and normal physiology (sweating)
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM + DERMATOLOGY – medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of integumentary system disorders SKIN -Or CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE -Largest organ of the body in area and weight - Area = 22 square feet - Weight = 4.5-5 kg
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM -Thinnest = eyelids - Thickest = heel - 2 main parts: EPIDERMIS – epithelial tissue DERMIS – connective tissue + SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER -Or HYPODERMIS - consists of areolar and adipose tissue - serve as a storage for fat and contains blood vessels
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM -Contains nerve endings called lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles that are sensitive to pressure. EPIDERMIS -Composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium -Four types of cells: KERATINOCYTES, MELANOCYTES, LANGERHANS CELLS, and MERKEL CELLS.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM KERATINOCYTES -90% of epidermal cells -Arranged in four or five layers and produce the protein keratin -Produce lamellar granules, which release a water-repellant sealant that decreases water entry and loss and inhibits the entry of foreign materials
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM MELANOCYTES -8% of epidermal cells -Produce the pigment melanin -Long and slender projections extend between the keratinocytes and transfer melanin granules to them + MELANIN – a yellow-red or brownblack pigment that contributes to skin color and absorbs damaging UV light
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM LANGERHANS CELLS -Arise from red bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis, where they constitute a small fraction of the epidermal cells -The participate in immune responses mounted against microbes that invade the skin
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM MERKEL CELLS -Least numerous of the epidermal cells -Located in the deepest layer of the epidermis, where they contact a structure called a tactile or Merkel disc which detect touch sensations
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM DERMIS -Deeper part of the skin -Composed mainly of connective tissue -Blood vessels, nerves, glands, and hair follicles are embedded in it -2 regions: PAPILLARY – superficial portion of the dermis (1/5) which consists of areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM PAPILLARY – also consists dermal papillae that contain capillaries, nerves of touch, and free nerve endings RETICULAR – deeper portion of the dermis (4/5) which consists of dense irregular connective tissue with bundles of collagen and some coarse elastic fibers. Spaces b/n fibers contain adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands.
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Skin color: 3 pigments: 1. Melanin 2. Hemoglobin 3. Carotene + Albinism – inherited inability to produce melanin + Vitiligo – partial loss of melanocytes from patches of skin producing white irregular spots
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Skin color: CYANOTIC – bluish; decreased oxygen in tissues JAUNDICE – yellow; buildup of bilirubin in the skin (liver disease) ERYTHEMA - redness; engorgement of capillaries in the skin PALLOR – paleness; shock, anemia
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM + TATTOOING -Permanent coloration of the skin in which a foreign pigment is deposited with a needle into the dermis + ACNE - Inflammation of sebaceous glands that usually begins at puberty, when the sebaceous glands grow in size and increase in production of sebum
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN: 1. Thermoregulation 2. Blood reservoir 3. Protection 4. Cutaneous sensations 5. Excretion and Absorption 6. Synthesis of Vitamin D
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM + Calcitriol -Most active form of Vitamin D -Hormone that aids in the absorption of calcium in foods from the Gastrointestinal Tract into the blood TACTILE SENSATIONS: 1. Crude touch – Ruffini corpuscles 2. Fine touch – Merkel discs 3. Pressure and Vibration – Lamellated or Pacinian corpuscles
Please bring out any piece of paper and prepare for a quiz..
QUESTION: 1. This protects the body, helps maintain a constant body temperature, and provides sensory information about the surrounding environment
QUESTION: 2. This is a group of tissues performing specific functions
QUESTION: 3. This is a group of organs performing specific functions
QUESTION: 4. This is the inherited inability to produce melanin
QUESTION: 5. This is the deeper part of the skin that is mainly composed of connective tissue
QUESTION: 6. These arise from red bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis, where they constitute a small fraction of the epidermal cells
QUESTION: 7. This is a yellow-red or brown-black pigment that contributes to skin color and absorbs damaging UV light
QUESTION: 8. This is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of integumentary system disorders
QUESTION: 9. These are nerve endings that are sensitive to pressure and vibration
QUESTION: 10. This is the superficial portion of the dermis (1/5) which consists of areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers
QUESTION: 11. Yellowish color of the skin which indicates liver disease
QUESTION: 12. This is the permanent coloration of the skin in which a foreign pigment is deposited with a needle into the dermis
QUESTION: 13. This is the most active form of Vitamin D?
QUESTION: 14. These are the least numerous of the epidermal cells
QUESTION: 15. These are the most numerous epidermal cells
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