Biological sciences2

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Information about Biological sciences2
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Published on February 28, 2014

Author: vannessangel24

Source: slideshare.net

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES By: MARIA KRISIA FAE DELOS REYES DE ASIS, BSN-RN

CLASSIFY! WOLF KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus: Canis Species: lupus

CLASSIFY! LION KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Panthera Species: leo

CLASSIFY! WALRUS KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Pinnipedia Family: Odobenidae Genus: Odobenus Species: rosmarus

CLASSIFY! BLUE WHALE KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Family: Balaenopteridae Genus: Balaenoptera Species: musculus

CLASSIFY! POLAR BEAR KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Ursidae Genus: Ursus Species: maritimus

CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION + MATTHIAS SCHLEIDEN - Stated that all plants are composed of cells + THEODOR SCHWANN - Stated that all animals are composed of cells + RUDOLF VIRCHOW - Used a microscope to study the life of cells

CELL THEORY = states that all organisms are composed of cells and that cells come only from preexisting cells + ROBERT HOOKE - First person to use the term “cell”

CELL = the structural and functional unit of organs and organisms = “building block of life” + CYTOLOGY - Study of cells

CELL COMPONENTS = PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, CARBOHYDRATES and LIPIDS are the four major molecules that underlie cell structure and also participate in cell function + Plasma membrane - Formed by a tightly organized arrangement of lipids, proteins, and protein-sugar compounds

CELL COMPONENTS = PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, CARBOHYDRATES and LIPIDS are the four major molecules that underlie cell structure and also participate in cell function

CELL COMPONENTS + ENZYMES - Specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions + RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) - works with DNA to build the thousands of proteins the cell needs + DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) - Nucleic acid that contains the hereditary information for cells

CELL STRUCTURE O PROKARYOTIC - all the components, including the DNA, mingle freely in the cell’s interior as a single compartment O EUKARYOTIC - contain numerous compartments, or organelles, within each cell

PROKARYOTIC CELL = Among the smallest of all cells = can be rodlike, spherical, or spiral in shape, are surrounded by a protective CELL WALL + PLASMA MEMBRANE -composed of two layers of flexible lipid molecules and interspersed with durable proteins -selectively permeable

PROKARYOTIC CELL + CYTOPLASM -Semifluid that fills the cells and enclosed by the plasma membrane + RIBOSOMES -The only organelle in prokaryotic cells -Tiny bead-like structures that serve as the cell’s protein factories (PROTEIN SYNTHESIS)

PROKARYOTIC CELL + DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) -a complex molecule in the form of a double helix -it repeatedly twists and folds to form a compact structure called a CHROMOSOME -Found within the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell (nucleoid) -divided into units called GENES found in the PLASMID

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL = typically about ten times larger than prokaryotic cells + PLASMA MEMBRANE -it separates the cell from its surroundings and regulates the traffic across the membrane + CYTOPLASM -Semifluid that fills the cells and enclosed by the plasma membrane -house a nucleus and numerous other membrane-enclosed organelles

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL ORGANELLES: o NUCLEUS -surrounded by a doublelayered membrane that protects the DNA from potentially damaging chemical reactions that occur in the cytoplasm -Command center of the cell -In constant communication with the cytoplasm

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM -An elongated membranous sac attached to the nuclear membrane + Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum -Studded with ribosomes -Function: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, forms VESICLES (in which large molecules are transported to other parts of the cell – plasma membrane or Golgi apparatus)

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL + Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum -Has no attached ribosomes -Function: LIPID SYNTHESIS (phospholipids & steroids) -Other functions are dependent on the type of cell (ex. Testes – produces testosterone, Liver – detoxifies drugs)

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o GOLGI APPARATUS -Named after Camillo Golgi -An organelle that resembles a stack of pancakes -“packaging center of the cell” -packed with enzymes that complete the processing of proteins and lipids by sorting and packaging them in vesicles for transport

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o LYSOSOMES -small, often spherical organelles that function as the cell’s recycling center and garbage disposal -Powerful digestive enzymes break down worn-out organelles and ship their building blocks to the cytoplasm where they are used to construct new organelles -also dismantle and recycle proteins, lipids, and other molecules

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o MITOCHONDRIA -Powerhouses of the cell -enzymes convert the sugar glucose and other nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -they contain their own DNA in the form of a prokaryote-like circular chromosome; have their own ribosomes, which resemble prokaryotic ribosomes; and divide independently of the cell

EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL + CYTOSKELETON - a dynamic network of protein tubes, filaments, and fibers, crisscrosses the cytoplasm, anchoring the organelles in place and providing shape and structure to the cell

EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL = have all the components of animal cells with several added features, including chloroplasts, a central vacuole, and a cell wall + CHLOROPLASTS -convert light energy into the sugar glucose by means of photosynthesis

EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL + VACUOLE -stores water, salts, sugars, proteins, and other nutrients -it stores the blue, red, and purple pigments that give certain flowers their colors -also contains plant wastes that taste bitter to certain insects, thus discouraging the insects from feasting on the plant

EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL + CELL WALL -surrounds and protects the plasma membrane -Its pores enable materials to pass freely into and out of the cell -The strength of the wall also enables a cell to absorb water into the central vacuole and swell without bursting -provides plants with rigidity and support for stems, leaves, and flowers

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