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Biological Community

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Published on September 24, 2008

Author: aSGuest169

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide 1: I enjoy long walks in the moonlight, I collect smurf figurines, enjoy polka music and am currently researching legend and myth of Willa Cather. Feel free to email me a hotwarrior1@sillymail.com. Ecological Succession : Ecological Succession Slide 3: Succession Defined: The sequential change in the relative abundances of the dominant species in a biological community following a disturbance. Primary succession: beginning from a abiotic environment following a cataclysmic disturbance. Secondary succession: beginning from a major disturbance, but all forms of life are not destroyed. Slide 4: Stages of Succession Early: plants typically small with short lifecycles (annuals…), rapid seed dispersal, environmental stabilizers. Middle: plants typically longer lived, slower seed dispersal, and in woodland systems: larger. Late: plants and animal species are those associated with older, more mature ecosystem. Climax Community – if land is left undisturbed and remains as long as no disturbance occurs Succession : Succession Fig 10.7 Diagram of bog succession. : © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Fig 10.7 Diagram of bog succession. Secondary Succession : Secondary Succession beginning from a major disturbance, but all forms of life are not destroyed. May take hundreds of years Abandoned fields, fire, climate change Secondary Succession : Secondary Succession Secondary succession on an abandoned field in North Carolina. Chapter 37 : Chapter 37 Distribution of Organisms Vocabulary : Vocabulary Biosphere Ecology Communities Ecosystem Biome Epiphytes Deciduous trees Tropical savanna Deserts Succulents Temperate forest Temperate evergreen Succulents Understory Permafrost Oligotrophic Eutrophic Pioneers Fugitive Climax community Ecological succession Primary succession Understory Herbs Climate and Vegetation : Climate and Vegetation Climate – determines type of soil and types of plants Depends on the sun Moisture temperature Biomes : Biomes A type of community defined by its climate Desert, Tundra, Taiga, Temperate Forest, Tropical Rain Forest, Grassland, Desert, Ocean Tropical Forests : Tropical Forests Tropical Forests : Tropical Forests Excellent growing conditions Intense sunlight High and constant temp High moisture (rain) Greatest diversity of species (“rich” biome) Savanna : Savanna A savanna is a grassland with a few scattered individual trees. Savannas are always found in warm or hot climates, with an average temperature of 64 degrees F. and above. They have a dry season in winter and a rainy summer. The annual rainfall is about 20-50 inches per year, with all the rain coming in 6-8 months. Very little rain falls in December and January.     Savannas of one sort or another cover almost half the surface of Africa (about five million square miles, generally central Africa) and large areas of Australia, South America, and India. The llanos of the Orinoco basin of Venezuela and Columbia are grass savannas maintained by the annual flooding of the Orinoco River and long periods of standing water that inhibit the growth of most trees. Temperate Forest : Temperate Forest Temperate Forest : Temperate Forest Abundant rainfall Herbs, shrubs, mosses, evergreens, deciduous trees Deer, fox squirrels, fox, wolves, bears, mountain lions Shrubland : Shrubland shrubs with small but thick evergreen leaves South America, western Australia, central Chile, and around the Mediterranean Sea. Dense shrubland in California Love fire Grassland : Grassland Grassland : Grassland educed rainfall (10-30 inches per year) or prolonged dry seasons. Americas, Africa, Asia, and Australia. utilized to grow crops, especially wheat and corn extensive root systems of grasses allows them to recover quickly from grazing, flooding, drought, and sometimes fire. mice, prairie dogs, rabbits, and animals that feed on them (hawks and snakes). Prairies once contained large herds of buffalo and pronghorn antelope, but with human activity these once great herds have dwindled. Desert : Desert Slide 23: People often think of deserts as endless seas of sand, or unbearably hot and dry that no living creature can survive in them. Although it is true that deserts have little water and are inhospitable places for some species, they are certainly not all hot or sandy. Nor are they empty of life.   What makes a desert different from other habitats is the lack of rain. Deserts are areas with less than then inches of rain a year or where evaporation of water, caused by high temperatures, is greater than rainfall. Some semiarid regions with between then and twenty-five inches rainfall a year are like desert because they lie in very hot parts of the world, and what little water there is evaporates quickly. The most arid parts of the world have less than one inch of rain per year. However, nowhere on Earth is completely wit out rain.   Desert temperatures vary by season. Some deserts see little change and tend to be hot all year round, yet other deserts can be bitterly cold in winter and searingly hot in summer.   Surprisingly some of the world largest rivers flow through deserts. All of them have sources of water far away where rainfall is usually higher in mountains. Although rainfall is rare or infrequent in the desert, there are other sources of groundwater. Here there is a sufficient water supply to allow plants to grow in an otherwise barren desert. This aquifer is called an oasis.   Only one fifth of the world’s deserts have a sandy surface. However, most deserts are made up of stones, gravel, and rocks, often described as endless expanses of black and gray gravel with an occasional rock outcrop.   Deserts can be very beautiful, but of all this planet’s habitats they are some of the least welcoming. Because of the lack of water or vegetation, animals and people are few and far between. Despite this, there is an amazing number and variety of plants and creatures that have adapted to such harsh conditions. Human as well, have used their ingenuity to find ways to live in and even tame arid lands to suit their purposes.   Deserts contain riches. The most valuable desert products today are crude oil and natural gas. Some deserts contain rich and vast deposits that have brought fabulous wealth to a country that would otherwise be poor. Long ago one of the most ancient desert products was salt. It was mined from salt lakes and deserts. It is still mined today as well. Some deserts contain nonrenewable minerals like uranium, gold, diamonds, and rocks, sand, gravel used for constructing roads and building. Today, deserts are being explored for its abundance of solar power. Assignment : Assignment Brief synopsis of the eight (8) biomes discussed in chapter 27. Location (where on the planet) Precipitation (amount per year) Wildlife (types of animals) Fauna (types plants)

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