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BIOL 102 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 2 (Spring 2014)

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Information about BIOL 102 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 2 (Spring 2014)
Education

Published on March 3, 2014

Author: robswatski

Source: slideshare.net

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Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters 24-pt2, 25, & 26 BIOL 102 General Biology II – Spring 2014 Chp 24: The Origin of Species, part 2 Postzygotic barriers: how do they prevent hybrid zygote from developing into fertile adult? -reduced hybrid viability -reduced hybrid fertility -hybrid breakdown Alternative species concepts -morphological, ecological, phylogenetic species concepts allopatric speciation -relationship between geographic isolation & number of species -relationship between reproductive isolation & distance between populations -evolution through mutation, natural selection, & genetic drift sympatric speciation polyploidy-autopolyploid & allopolyploid speciation habitat differentiation-role of new ecological niches sexual selection-cichlid fish example speciation rates-gradual change & punctuated equilibrium models genomics-identify specific gene(s) involved in speciation Chp 25: The History of Life on Earth macroevolution & abiotic synthesis; monomerspolymers (macromolecules) chemical composition of Earth’s early atmosphere (gases making up the reducing atmosphere) primordial soup model (Miller & Urey) & bubble model role of submerged volcanoes & deep-sea vents; meteorites protobionts & liposomes-simple metabolism self-replicating RNA & RNA world; ribozymes fossil record & strata radiometric (radiocarbon) dating; half-life; absolute ages; parent & daughter isotopes tetrapods & synapsids know important events of Archaean & Proterozoic Eons (4.6 bya to 635 mya) -Paleozoic (to 250 mya), Mesozoic (to 65 mya), Cenozoic (to present) stromatolites; prokaryotes & microfossils role of photosynthesis in early Earth atmosphere; cyanobacteria; role of oxidation endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria & plastids; serial endosymbiosis; origin of multicellularity “snowball Earth” hypothesis; Ediacaran biota; Cambrian explosion colonization of land: fungi, plants, animals (arthropods & tetrapods) continental drift; continental plates (collide, separate, slide); Pangaea & allopatric speciation

-significance of fossil distribution mass extinctions-significance of Permian, Cretaceous, 6th human-caused iridium layer in sedimentary rocks adaptive radiations & mass extinction; significance of dinosaur extinction & mammal evolution (monotremes, marsupials, eutherians); role of competition-Hawaii ex. developmental genes-heterochrony, paedomorphosis homeotic genes-Hox genes -role of gene duplication & changes in developmental gene regulation evolutionary novelty-eye ex. Chp 26: Phylogeny & the Tree of Life phylogeny; systematics; taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus scientific names-Genus & species (specific epithet) hierarchical classification-domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species phylogenetic trees-shared ancestor, branch point, sister taxa, rooted tree, polytomy phylogeny construction-morphology, genes, biochemistry homology & common ancestry analogy & convergent evolution molecular systematics-molecular homoplasies cladistics-monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic clades shared ancestral & derived characters/traits character table (“1’s” and “0’s”); outgroup & ingroup significance of branch length in trees: # of genetic changes & chronological time phylogenetic bracketing importance of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) gene duplications orthologous & paralogous genes gene number & genome complexity molecular clocks & rate of evolution 3 domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya-phylogeny & role of horizontal gene transfer endosymbiosis theory; ring of life hypothesis 2

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