BIOL 101 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 2 (Spring 2014)

47 %
53 %
Information about BIOL 101 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 2 (Spring 2014)
Education

Published on March 4, 2014

Author: robswatski

Source: slideshare.net

Lecture Exam #2 Study Guide: Chp 3 (pH), 4, 5, 6 (through organelles) BIOL 101 General Biology I – Spring 2014 Chp 3 – Water and Life (pH: p. 51-56) molecular mass & molarity (moles) H+ = hydrogen ion; H3O+ = hydronium ion; OH- = hydroxide ion dynamic equilibrium & dissociation: 2H2O  H3O+ + OHpH scale (0  14): acid, neutral pH, base (alkaline); role of buffers -acids: [H+] > [OH-] – donate H+ -bases: [H+] < [OH-] – accept H+ (or donate OH-) ocean acidification and threat to coral reef ecosystems acid precipitation Chp 4 – Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life how can carbon form so many different molecules? -carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids organic chemistry (organic compounds) vitalism vs. mechanism -Miller’s experiment on chemical evolution electron configuration (C = 4 valence electrons = tetravalence) -tetrahedral vs. flat molecular shape -valences of H=1, O=2, N=3, C=4 -carbon chains (how are they named?) -variety of carbon skeletons: length, presence/absence of double bonds, branching, rings hydrocarbons (fats) isomers: structural, geometric (cis & trans), enantiomers functional groups: know structure, name of compound, examples, functional properties of: -carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, methyl ATP (adenosine triphosphate); ATP  ADP + Pi Chp 5 – The Structure & Function of Large Biological Molecules 4 classes of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids -monomers  polymers; condensation (dehydration) synthesis & hydrolysis reactions Carbohydrates – know structures & functions 1. Monosaccharides: CH2O, glucose (C6H12O6) -classified based on location of carbonyl group (-C=O; aldose or ketose), # of C in skeleton 2. Disaccharides: glycosidic linkage, maltose & sucrose 3. Polysaccharides (polymers): differ in type of monomer & positions of glycosidic linkages -starch: glucose monomers, granules in plastids, 1-4 linkages of alpha-glucose (helix) -glycogen: in animal liver & muscle -cellulose: in plant cell walls, 1-4 linkage of beta-glucose monomers (straight chain-microfibrils), insoluble fiber, microbe-herbivore symbiotic relationships - chitin: fungal cell wall, animal exoskeleton

Lipids: no polymers; fats, phospholipids, steroids; hydrophobic, hydrocarbons, nonpolar covalent bonds, major functions = energy storage (adipose), cushions organs, insulation -fats: building blocks - glycerol (3-C with –OH) + fatty acids (long C chains, carboxyl group); triglycerides; ester linkages (-O-C=O) -fatty acids: saturated (no C=C; solids; most animal fats; plaque deposits) & unsaturated (1 or more C=C bonds); bending; liquids (oils); most in plants & fish; hydrogenation: trans fats (hydrogenated vegetable oil) -phospholipids: 2 fatty acids (hydrophobic tails) + glycerol + phosphate group (hydrophilic head); plasma membrane lipid bilayer -steroids: 4 fused rings; cholesterol function in membranes & blood Proteins: Table 5.1 – know types, functions, examples -enzymes: catalysts, substrate, active site; sucrosewith sucraseglu + fru -polypeptides: polymers of amino acids (20); peptide bonds (backbone); amino acids: carboxyl group, amino group, R group [nonpolar, polar, acidic (-), or basic (+)] -4 levels of protein structure: 1. primary: linear; amino acid sequence 2. secondary: coils & folds; hydrogen bonds; alpha helix, beta pleated sheet 3. tertiary: R-group interactions3-D; hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions; disulfide bridges 4. quaternary: 2 or more polypeptides; collagen, hemoglobin (role in sickle-cell disease) -denaturation: pH, salt, temperature -protein folding: chaperonins -x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, bioinformatics Nucleic acids: functions; gene (DNA)amino acid sequence of protein -DNA: deoxyribose; RNA: ribose -replication (DNADNA); DNAmRNA (transcription); mRNApolypeptide (protein) -nucleotide: nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, phosphate -pyrimidines: C, T, U (1-ring); purines: A, G (2-rings) -polynucleotides: polymer (S-P backbone); nitrogenous base sequence unique for each gene -double helix: A-T and C-G base pair rules for DNA (hydrogen bonds between bases) Chapter 6 – A Tour of the Cell (p. 94-111) Microscopes: image quality: magnification, resolution, contrast; value of stains & labels -light microscopes: view whole cells, not organelles; brightfield (unstained/stained), phase contrast, differential interference-contrast, fluorescence, confocal -electron microscopes: scanning (SEM) & transmission (TEM) Cell fractionation: know general procedure: longer times [10 min  3 hr] & higher g’s [1000 g  150,000 g] needed to separate smallest cell structures & chemicals -ultracentrifuge (differential centrifugation)homogenization of samplepellet (nuclei + cellular debris)supernatantmitochondria & chloroplastsmicrosomesribosomes 2

Cells: -Prokaryotic (domains Bacteria & Archaea) vs. Eukaryotic cells (domain Eukarya) -nucleoid region (Pro), nucleus with nuclear envelope (Eu), membrane-bound organelles (Eu), -all cells: plasma membranes, cytoplasm & cytosol, DNA (chromosomes - genes), ribosomes -plasma membrane: phospholipid bilayer, hydrophilic/-phobic, membrane proteins -cell size (10-100 microns): importance of surface area-to-volume ratio Organelles – know the structures & functions of these organelles: -nucleus: chromatinchromosomes, nuclear envelope, nuclear lamina & pores, nucleolus -ribosomes (rRNA): free or bound, small & large subunits Endomembrane system: -endoplasmic reticulum (ER): rough (ribosomes) & smooth, glycoproteins, transport vesicles -Golgi apparatus: cis & trans faces, cisternae, relationship with ER & cell membrane, secretion -lysosomes: hydrolytic enzymes, phagocytosis, autophagy -peroxisomes: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)  water -vacuoles: food vacuole, contractile vacuole, central vacuole -mitochondria: outer & inner membranes (cristae), intermembrane space, mitochondrial matrix, aerobic cellular respiration -chloroplasts: plastids, thylakoids, grana, stroma, chlorophyll, photosynthesis - Endosymbiont Theory --- Lecture Exam #2 material stops here --The rest of Chp 6 (p. 112-122) will be on Lecture Exam #3 3

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

BIOL 102 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 2 (Spring 2014)

Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters 24-pt2, 25, & 26 BIOL 102 General Biology II – Spring 2014 Chp 24: The Origin of Species, part 2 Postzygotic barriers: how ...
Read more

BIOL 101 Lecture Exam #1 Study Guide - Fall 2014

BIOL 101 Lecture Exam #1 Study Guide - Fall 2014 Education presentation. ... BIOL 101 Lecture Exam #1 Study Guide - Fall 2014 Related presentations ...
Read more

BIOL 102 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 3 (Spring 2014)

BIOL 102 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 3 (Spring 2014 ... 102 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 3 (Spring 2014) ... 3 Study Guide: Chapters 14, 15, & 16-pt1 BIOL 102 ...
Read more

BIOL 101 Spring 2014 Syllabus (1).docx - Virginia ...

... BIOL 101 Spring 2014 Syllabus (1) ... pasmith@vcu.edu Lecture : ... A Guide to Biology with Physiology (2 nd Edition) ...
Read more

BIOL 121 Lecture Exam 2 Study Guide Fall 2014

Information about BIOL 121 Lecture Exam 2 Study Guide Fall 2014
Read more

Search › biol 101 | Quizlet

BIOL 101 Exam 2 : Vicki Vance (Terms) ... BIOL 101 Exam #1 Study Guide (Spring 2014) 92 terms By ckala12 92 ... BIOL 101 Lecture/Reading 2.
Read more

Syllabus -- BIOL 1010 Biology and the Citizen Spring 2014

Syllabus -- BIOL 1010 Biology and ... of lectures, review questions, study guides, ... and the Citizen – Spring 2014 The syllabus is a general guide for ...
Read more

BIOL 101 : Biology101- Study Guide #1.docx | OneClass

BIOL 101 - The Basis of Life; ... 2014/02/16. Textbook. N/A. Excerpt. ... Complete and Comprehensive Exam#2 Study Guide - Spring 2016.
Read more

BIOL 101 LECTURE OUTLINE 2 - coursehero.com

... BIOL 101 LECTURE OUTLINE 2 from BIOLOGY 101 at CSU ... C. DUONG BIOL 101: LECTURE OUTLINE / STUDY GUIDE Exams will include information discussed ...
Read more

Search › biol 101 2 | Quizlet

biol 101 2 500+ Study Sets 500+ Sets
Read more