Published on May 31, 2014
Bio fuels An Alternate Fuel Junaid Ashfaq Msc 4-Semester Dept. of Applied chemistry and Biochemistry GC University, Fsb
Introduction of Biofuels Biofuel feedstock Classification of Biofuels Manufacturing Process of Biofuels Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuel References
• Biofuel is the fuel which is produced from organic products and wastes. • The common commercially used biofuels are bioethanol, biodiesel and biomethane. Bioethanol is made from sugar, algae, wheat and sugar beet Biodiesel is made from vegetable oil, algal lipids, animal fats Biomethane can be produced from waste organic material, sewage, agriculture waste and domestic wastes.
History • In 1890s Rudolf Diesel was a first person who made biodiesel from vegetable oil. • In 1970s and 1980s environmental protection agency EPA situated in America suggested that fuel should be free from sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. • In 1998 EPA allowed the production of biofuel on commercial level which was the alternative source of the petrol. • In 2010 the production of biofuels reaches up to 105 billion liters worldwide. • In 2011, European countries were the largest that made biodiesel almost about 53%. The international Energy Agency set a goal to reduce the usage of petroleum and coal and will be switched on to biofuels till 2050.
Soybean Corn Sugarcane Sugar beet Switchgrass Jatropha Camelina Algae
Cassava Palm oil Certain fungi Animal fat Agricultural wastes
Classification of Biofuels Also called conventional biofuels. It includes sugar, starch, or vegetable oil known as advanced biofuels and can be manufactured from different types of biomass. The biomass contains lignocellulosic material like wood, straw and waste plastic Extract from algae mostly marine algae
Advantages of Biofuels over Fossil Fuels • Lower emissions Green gas • Renewable • Biodegradable • Safer
Bioethanol Biodiesel Biogas Biobutanol
Bioethanol Bioethanol is produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate rich source which includes sugar cane, sugar beet, corn etc It is colorless and clear liquid One of the widely used alternative automotive fuel in the world
Bioethanol Milling ( sugarcane stem & separation of juice and bagasse) Fermentation (conversion of sugar into alcohol, production of ethanol) Distillation (separation of ethanol) Dehydration (azeotropic mixture)
C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C6H12O6 C2H5OH + CO2 • Fermentation process requires 3 days to complete and is carried out at a temperature of between 250°C and 300°C. Sucrose Glucose Glucose Fructose Ethanol
Ad-Disadvantages of Bioethanol Advantages Disadvantages Ethanol is a renewable resource Large amounts leading to problems such as soil erosion, deforestation. Ethanol burns more cleanly in air than petroleum Typical current engines would require modification The use of ethanol reduce carbon dioxide emissions Expensive
Biodiesel • Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel, is made from re- new able biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. • Similar to petroleum diesel fuel in structure (straight chain) and number of carbon atoms (10 to 21) • The Biodiesel can be prepared by Transesterification.
Biodiesel from Different Oil Plant Oil Alcohol Temperature Reaction Time Catalyst Soybean and Castor (Brazil) Ethyl 70 3 Hours NaOH Wastes frying oil Methyl 60 1 Hours NaOH Rapeseed Methyl 60 33 mins KOH Sunflower Methyl 25 45 mins KOH
Fischer–Tropsch Process in Production of Biodiesel
Application of Biodiesel • Railway usage • Aircraft use • As a heating oil • Cleaning oil spills • Biodiesel in generators • Vehicles
Advantages-Disadvantages of Biodiesel Can be used pure biodiesel B100. Biodiesel is significantly more expensive compared to standard diesel Biodiesel has shorter ignition delay compared to standard diesel Biodiesel can release nitrogen oxide which can lead to the formation of smog. Biodiesel has no sulfur content, and so it doesn't contribute to acid rain formation Pure biodiesel has significant problems with low temperatures Biodiesel has good lubricating properties better than standard diesel Food Shortage can be occurred
Comparison between Bioethanol & Biodiesel Bioethanol Biodiesel Process Fermentation Transesterification Environmental Benefit Both reduce greenhouse gas emissions Compatibility Blended E85 % B100 % Costs Cheaper More expensive Gallons per acre 420 gallons per acre 60 gallons per acre soybeans. Energy provides 93% more net energy per gallon produces only 25% more net energy.
Biobutanol • The term biobutanol refers to butanol made from renewable resources such as grain or cornstalks by fermentation process • Bacteria; known as, solventogenic Clostridia is used • Butanol is more similar to gasoline than to ethanol.
Production of Butanol from Ethanol Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 Catalyst
Biobutanol Applications • Gasoline (as an additive) and brake fluid (formulation component) • Solvent –for paints, coatings, varnishes • Plasticizers –to improve how a plastic material processes • Coatings –as a solvent for a variety of applications, • Chemical intermediate or raw material –for other chemicals and plastics, • Textiles –as a swelling agent from coated fabric • Cosmetics –makeup, nail care products, shaving products. • Butanol can be used in car
Biogas • A mixture of CH4 , CO2 and other gases Gas % Methane 50–75 Carbon dioxide 25–50 Nitrogen 0–10 Hydrogen 0–1 Hydrogen sulfide 0–3 Oxygen 0–2
Biogas • Biogas is a fuel used as domestic purpose • Obtained from cow manure, fruit and vegetable waste • Biogas is produced by the breakdown of organic waste by bacteria without oxygen anaerobic digestion
Biogas Two Types of Anaerobic Digestion • Mesophilic process 25-38°C for 14-30 days • Thermophilic process 50-60°C for 12-14 days • Produced from Anaerobic digestion in Anaerobic Digesters (AD)
Biogas Plant Stops air getting into the digester- creates anaerobic condition Gas to kitchen Sludge used as a fertiliser
• Hydrolysis : Complex organic matter is decomposed into simple soluble organic molecules using water • Fermentation or Acidogenesis: generation of intermediary products such as short- chain fatty acids, (hydrogen producing and acetogenic organisms) • Acetogenesis: acetate production (hydrogen-producing, hydrogen- consuming acetogenic organisms) • Methanogenesis: methane production (methane-forming bacteria) CH3COO-+ H+ CH4 + CO2 CO2 + 4 H2 CH4 + 2H2O
Biogas A. Methanosarcina (cocci) Methanosaeta Clostridium formicoaceticumSyntrophomonas wolfei
Advantages Biogas • Reduce air and water pollution • more environmentally friendly fertilizers • Reduced greenhouse gas emissions • concerns about waste management in the agriculture and food industry • Energy security
Application of Biogas • Cooking • Lighting • Fuel for engine
Advantages of Biofuels • Renewable • Reduce Greenhouse Gases • Economic Security • Easy to Source • Lower level of Pollution
Disadvantages of Biofuel • High Cost of Production • Industrial Pollution • Future Rise in Price • Shortage of Food • Use of Fertilizer
• Reduce wastes • Cleaner air • New agricultural markets • Improve balance of payments • global warming reduction • Benefit developing nations
References • Abbi M., Kuhad R.C., Singh A.(1996). Bioconversion of pentose sugars to ethanol by free and immobilized cells of Candida shehatate: Fermentation behaviour, Process Biochemistry.31(6):555-560. • Brandberg T., Karimi K., Taherzadeh M., Franzen C J., Gustasson L.(2007). Continuous fermentation of wheat supplemented lignocellulose hydrolysate with different types of cell retention, Biotechnology Bioengineering.98(1):80-9 • Cardona C.A., Sanchez O J.(2007). Fuel ethnol production: process design trends and integration opportunities, Bioresource Technology.98:2415- 2457 • Oura E.(1977). Reaction products of yeast fermentation, Process Biochemistry.12(3):19-21 • Nguyen Q., Tucker M., Boynton B., Keller F., Schell D.(1998). Dilute acid pretreatment of softwood, Applied Biochemistry Biotechnology.70-72, 77- 87.
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