Biodiesel web

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Published on November 9, 2007

Author: VolteMort

Source: authorstream.com

UGA RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAM:  UGA RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAM BIODIESEL PRIMER FACULTY OF ENGINEERING OUTREACH SERVICE Slide2:  FATS and OILS + ALCOHOL catalyst BIODIESEL + GLYCEROL Biodiesel Production Biodiesel – an established technology:  Biodiesel – an established technology Studied since 1980s – solved issue of oil viscosity reduction in oils. Established production methods and standardization ASTM D 6751 (2001). An estimated 30 million gallons were produced in the US in 2004. Currently available at 200+ commercial fueling stations in the US and widely available in Europe (http://www.biodiesel.org). At the Pump – Biodiesel Blends:  At the Pump – Biodiesel Blends Blends up to 20%(B20) can be used with existing vehicles: no vehicle incremental costs Can use existing diesel refueling infrastructure Fuel widely available at B20 blend (20% Biodiesel – 80% Petroleum Diesel) Significant particulate matter emission reductions from diesel engines Biodiesel Federal Tax Credit:  Biodiesel Federal Tax Credit US Federal Tax Credit of $1.00/gal for virgin oils, $.50/gal for used oils Offered to blenders as part of 2005 Energy Bill to promote infrastructure development Credit only extends to blends up to 20% Biodiesel. Tax Credit Expires in 2008 Recommendations for Biodiesel Fleet Use:  Recommendations for Biodiesel Fleet Use Ensure the Biodiesel meets the ASTM specification Ensure your B20 supplier provides a homogenous product. Avoid long term storage of B20 to prevent degradation. (6 months) Prior to transitioning to B20, it is recommended that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and water. Recommendations for Biodiesel Fleet Use:  Recommendations for Biodiesel Fleet Use Fuel filters on the vehicles and in the delivery system may need to be changed more frequently upon initial B20 use. Be aware of B20’s cold weather properties and take appropriate precautions. Perform regularly scheduled maintenance Slide8:  The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils C C C R1 R2 R3 + 3MeOH C C C OH OH OH MeR1 MeR2 MeR3 + Triglyceride (fats and oils) Methanol (alcohol) Glycerol Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) NaOH Biodiesel Production Slide9:  Why Transesterification? High Viscosity of Fats and Oils leads to injector coking, a sign of engine damage from accumulation of carbon deposits. Transesterification reduces viscosity and subsequently protects engines from damage. Batch Biodiesel Production:  Batch Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix well and heat to 150oF Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Tank 3 wash with water settle, decant bottom water layer - repeat Simple to make, difficult to make right* *This is a basic overview of the process, actual production requires strict quality control and chemical processing experience Biodiesel Challenges:  Biodiesel Challenges Quality Control - Meeting Spec. Feedstock Availability and Price Glycerol Byproduct Utilization Quality Control – The ASTM Specification:  Quality Control – The ASTM Specification ASTM D6751 – 03a Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels Membership in the National Biodiesel Board required for sale of Biodiesel in US. Failure to comply = $25,000/day fine from EPA NBB enforces standard with quality checks. Failure to conform results in loss of membership Biodiesel is easy to make but difficult to make right.:  Biodiesel is easy to make but difficult to make right. Steps required to insure product quality - chemistry or engineering experience is necessary: Complete Reaction – Enough mixing is necessary to assure completion of initial reaction Adequate Washing – Washing step must be thorough to insure removal of contaminating impurities: alcohol, catalyst, glycerol Complete Separation – Settling residence time must be sufficient to insure no glycerol or water remains in final product. Slide14:  Feedstock Shortage and Price Volatility Limited supply of Biodiesel feedstocks in the US. Most oils are used in foods and have associated high price Fats and Oils as well as fuels are commodities and thus have volatile prices. Slide15:  Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks In the US, soybean oil is the most common feedstock In Europe, rapeseed oil provides the most common feedstock Other Common Feedstocks:  Other Common Feedstocks Sunflower oil is commonly used in France and Eastern Europe. Palm Oil is common in Malaysia. Used cooking oil is quickly becoming a common feedstock in the US. However, supplies are limited. High Output GA Feedstock - Peanuts:  High Output GA Feedstock - Peanuts Advantages: High Oil Yield ~50-60% Soy is only ~18% oil Established GA Crop Obstacles: High Value Commodity Shelling and sorting is costly process Inexpensive GA Feedstock – Poultry Fat:  Inexpensive GA Feedstock – Poultry Fat Advantages: Abundant commodity in GA Historically low market price Obstacles: High Free Fatty Acids Increased Processing High demand = price rise + scarcity Dealing With the Feedstock Shortage:  Dealing With the Feedstock Shortage What else is being done in GA to address the issue? Soy and Canola both grow in GA. Development of dedicated energy crops optimized for GA conditions example. Peanuts = GEOLA Glycerol Byproduct Utilization:  Glycerol Byproduct Utilization Refined Glycerol is traditionally a valuable co-product with uses in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food. Glycerol produced in Biodiesel reaction is Crude byproduct containing unused reactants, water, and Biodiesel and must be refined. Surplus of refined Glycerol from European Biodiesel market has brought price and demand down Glycerol Byproduct Utilization:  Glycerol Byproduct Utilization New uses for Glycerol must be developed as glycerol disposal can be a significant challenge in the overall Biodiesel production process. Potential innovative uses include: Use as a fuel extender in boilers and heaters Catalytic conversion to value added chemicals Cleaning agent and extender for used oil industry Conclusions:  Conclusions Biodiesel: A Safe, Reliable, Established Technology Availability: Dispersed state availability with more development to come in 2006 Blending: 20% Biodiesel blend (B20) standard fuel, safe for current diesel engines Production: Easy to make – difficult to make right Challenges: Quality Control, Feedstock, Glycerol Byproduct management University of Georgia Biodiesel Research:  University of Georgia Biodiesel Research Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA University of Georgia Biodiesel Research:  University of Georgia Biodiesel Research Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA Bench scale production and testing of fuel properties Bench Scale Reaction:  Bench Scale Reaction Fuel Properties Analyses:  Fuel Properties Analyses University of Georgia Biodiesel Research:  University of Georgia Biodiesel Research Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA Bench scale production and analysis of fuel properties Small scale production and engine testing laboratory Small-Scale Production:  Small-Scale Production Engine Testing Facility:  Engine Testing Facility University of Georgia Biodiesel Research:  University of Georgia Biodiesel Research Over 20 years of Biodiesel research at UGA Bench scale production and analysis of fuel properties Small scale production and engine testing laboratory Pilot scale production and University Bus Fleet supply University of Georgia Transit System:  University of Georgia Transit System Largest passenger volume of any university transit system in the United States (47 buses) Consumes 300,000 gallons of Diesel per year 2006 (projected) Biodiesel plant to displace 20% petroleum diesel (60,000gal/yr) Production Scale:  Production Scale

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