Published on March 5, 2014
Submitted by: Mustahid Ali
OVERVIEW DEFINITION HISTORY BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY BIOCHIP ARCHITECTURE IMPLANT WORKING APPLICATION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES FUTURE OF BIOCHIPS CONCLUSION
DEFINITION Bio + Chip = Biochip Bio: stands for any biological entity eg: protein,DNA. Chip: a computer chip. Biochip: Small-scale device, analogous to an integrated circuit, constructed of or used to analyze organic molecules associated with living organisms.
HISTORY The development of biochips has long history starting with early work on the underlying sensor technology. A glucose sensor developed in 1962 by Clark and colleague Lyons which utilized glucose oxidase molecules embedded in a dialysis membrane. The biochips technology was originally developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries.
THE BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY The biochip system is Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system. The multiple technologies needed to make a successful biochip — Sensing chemistry: to sense the biologial processes. Microarraying: the dense, two-dimensional grid of biosensors deposited on a flat substrate, which may either be passive (e.g. silicon or glass) or active.
Signal processing: Transduction must be done to translate the actual sensing event into a format understandable by a computer,which then enables additional analysis and processing to produce a final, human-readable output.
BIOCHIP ARCHITECTURE SIZE: the size of biochips is the size of an uncooked rice.It ranges from 2 inches to 12 inches. COMPONENTS: the major parts of biochips areTRANSPODER- the actual biochip implant.Passive transpoder i.e. no batteries required.Four parts of transpoder are:1.Computer microchip-stores a unique 10 to 15 digits long identification number.ID number encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly.
2.Antenna coil-simple, coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core.Receives and sends signals from the reader. 3.Tuning Capacitor- stores the small electrical charge sent by the reader which activates the transponder to send back the ID number encoded.Capacitor is tuned to the same radio frequency as the reader to establish communication between the two. 4. Glass Capsule- houses the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. A small capsule measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter.Made soda lime glass.After assembly, the capsule is air tight sealed.
READER - consists of an "exciter" coil which creates an electromagnetic field that,via radio signals, provides the necessary energy to activate the implanted biochip.The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the ID number sent back from the activated implanted biochip. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result.
IMPLANT The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple,comparable to common vaccines. Anesthesia is not required nor recommended.
WORKING OF BIOCHIPS The reader generates a low-power electromagnetic field via radio signals Implanted biochip gets activated Biochip sends ID code back to the reader via radio signals. Reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format and displays it on LCD
APPLICATIONS With a biochip tracing of a person/animal anywhere in the world is possible A biochip can store and update financial, medical,demographic data, basically everything about a person Biochips really are potent in replacing passports, cash and medical records. A biochip leads to a secured Ecommerce Systems They can perform thousands of biological reactions and operations in few seconds.
MEDICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOCHIPS Biochip as Glucose Detector Biochip as an Blood Pressure sensor Biochip as Oxygen sensor
ADVANTAGES TO RESCUE THE SICK. TO IDENTIFY PERSON UNIQUELY. IN MONITORING HEALTH CONDITIONOFINDIVIDUALS IN WHICH THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY EMPLOYED. THEY CAN PERFORM THOUSANDS OF BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS,OPERATIONS IN FEW SECONDS.
DISADVANTAGES THEY RAISE CRITICAL ISSUESOF PERSONAL PRIVACY. THEY MARK THE END OF HUMAN FREEDOM AND DIGNITY. THEY MAY NOT BE SUPPORTED BY LARGE % OF PEOPLE. THERE IS A DANGER OF TURNING EVERY MAN,WOMEN AND CHILD INTO A CONTROLLED SLAVE. THEY CAN BE IMPLANTED INTO ONES BODY WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE.
FUTURE OF BIOCHIPS If people feel that they loose their privacy because of Biochips, they may resist use of it. But if they feel that it could help in a lot of ways like detecting , monitoring and curing of diseases they can use them intensively. So it is users of chip who determine its future .
CONCLUSION Biochips are fast, accurate, miniaturized and can be expected to become economically advantageous attributes that make them analogous to a computer chip. One expects to see an accelerated trend of ultra miniaturization and eventual harmonization of technologies ,so that dominant fabrication strategies will emerge. Since the potential applications are vast, both for research and clinical use, the potential markets for biochips will be huge, a powerful driving force for their continued development.
REFERENCES http://www.scribd.com http://www.authorstream.com http://www.slideshare.net www.wikipedia.org
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