Bio F4 Cell Organel

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Information about Bio F4 Cell Organel

Published on August 18, 2009

Author: miaceh

Source: slideshare.net

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

CELL CONCEPT MAP CELL Consists of Cel wall (plant cell) Cell membrane Protoplasm Vacuole ( plant cell ) of two parts Nucleus Cytoplasm contains Consists of Nuclear membrane Nucleoplasma contains Chromatin substances / chromosomes Consists of Protein (histone) DNA Cell organelles Mitocondrion Chloroplast ( in green plant ) Endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi Body Fluid medium, (containing nucleotides and enzymes) Grana Stroma Ribosome Basic unit of life. All organisms consists of cell Procaryote and eucaryote- 2 types Microbodies contained in the cytoplasm, carrying out specific functions for the cell activities Processing and packaging proteins/ other molecules to form cell secretions Contains water, nutrients, mineral salts, waste (nitrogenous) substances The site for protein synthesis Generates energy for the cell The fluid mosaic hypothesis- the bilayer of phospholipid molecules with protein molecules in it / over the surface Made up from cellulose, porous to micro- and macromolecules like sugar and starch Contains chlorophyll Contains enzymes With ribosomes No ribosomes What do you know about the cells?

CELL

PLANT CELL 1. What organelles can be seen under the light microscope and electron microscope? If examined under light microscope If examined by electron microscope Cell wall vacuole Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Chloroplast Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome Nucleus Nuclear membrane Cell membrane Tonoplast Mitochondrion Golgi body Nucleolus Cell wall Vacuole Chloroplast Cell membrane Nucleus

PLANT CELL B…………………………….. C………………………. D……………………... ………………… E …………………………… .F …………… .G H………………………………………………………. ………………… ..K ………………… L 3. Name all the parts labelled A to L in the figure. 4. Which parts of the cell are not found in animal cell? 5. Describe the function of the parts labelled A, C, E, G and H Describe the structure of the nucleus and its function. Where are the organelles C, E and G mostly found plant cell and animal cell? Explain ? A:……………………………

Describe the structure of the nucleus and its function.

Where are the organelles C, E and G mostly found plant cell and animal cell? Explain ?

STRUCTURE OF A TYPICAL PLANT CELL ELECTRON MICROGRAPH OF A PLANT CELL A TYPICAL PLANT CELL Mitochond rion Tonoplast Nucleus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Golgi body Vesicle Chloroplast Cytoplasm Vacuole Cell wall

CELL STRUCTURE The cell structures consist of : Cell membrane : Structure: phospholipids bilayer with (pore and carrier ) protein molecules Function : partially permeable,regulates passage of substances into/ out of cell Nucleus : Structure : ………………………………… Function :………………………………….. Mitochondrion Structure :……………………………….. Function : ………………………………… Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure: has …………………………… Function…………………………………… Smooth ER Structure: has no……………………….. Function:…………………………………. Golgi body Function…………………………………. Chloroplast contains………………………………… Function…………………………………. Ribosomes functions in ………… …………………………………………… ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL P: Q: R: Protoplasm S: T: U: P: Q: R:

The cell structures consist of :

Cell membrane :

Structure: phospholipids bilayer with (pore and carrier ) protein molecules

Function : partially permeable,regulates passage of substances into/ out of cell

Nucleus :

Structure : …………………………………

Function :…………………………………..

Mitochondrion

Structure :………………………………..

Function : …………………………………

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Structure: has ……………………………

Function……………………………………

Smooth ER

Structure: has no………………………..

Function:………………………………….

Golgi body

Function………………………………….

Chloroplast

contains…………………………………

Function………………………………….

Ribosomes functions in …………

……………………………………………

STRUCTURE OF A TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL Centriol Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Vesicle (containing secretions) A TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL ELECTRON MICROGRAPH OF AN ANIMAL CELL Nucleus Ribosome Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Cytoplasm Golgi body

CELL ORGANELLES Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus lysosome mitochondrion chloroplast Cell wall Smooth ER vacuole

 

 

 

 

PROTEIN TRANSPORT IN CELL NUCLEUS Rough endoplasmic reticulum Plasma membrane (Secretory) vesicle e Transport vesicle Golgi body cytoplasm Excretion of substances produced in cell Protein like enzymes are synthesized in ribosomes. Then they are transported in the lumen of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). At one end, the RER , having the proteins buds off forming transport vesicle. Transport vesicle moves to Golgi body, unites with it and forms part of the Golgi body. In that way the proteins / enzymes are contained in the Golgi body where it is further processed, modified and finally packed off as secretory vesicle. The secretory vesicle containing secretions moves to plasma membrane, unite with it and thereby eliminates the secretions.

FUNCTION OF ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

GOLGI BODY Where is the protein synthesised in a cell? What is the function of Rough endoplasmic reticulum? How is the protein carried away from RER to the Golgi body? What happen to the protein thus produced in Golgi body? ( the function of Golgi body ) Golgi body produces secretions like enzyme (a protein ). How is the secretion passed out of the cell? By refering to the diagram, describe the process by which an enzyme like amylase, produced in a pancreatic cell, is carried out to the duodenum for digestion process. FUNCTION OF ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND GOLGI BODY IN SECRETION

Where is the protein synthesised in a cell?

What is the function of Rough endoplasmic reticulum?

How is the protein carried away from RER to the Golgi body?

What happen to the protein thus produced in Golgi body? ( the function of Golgi body )

Golgi body produces secretions like enzyme (a protein ). How is the secretion passed out of the cell?

By refering to the diagram, describe the process by which an enzyme like amylase, produced in a pancreatic cell, is carried out to the duodenum for digestion process.

CELL MEMBRANE- THE FLUID MOSAIC HYPOTHESIS O 2 , CO 2 Glukosa ion (Membentuk tapak penerima dengan protein pembawa) The lipid molecules are moving to make the bilayer fluid in nature. Cholesterol in the membrane helps to make the ‘lipid fluid’ more viscous in the cell membranel Allows small, nonpolar and fat soluble molecules to pass through it eg. water, fatty acid, gas The carrier and channel proteins help to move polar/ charged and bigger molecules through the membrane eg. ions, glukose, amino acid Explain the fluid – mosaic hypothesis of the cell membrane. polysaccharides Channel in protein molecule Phospholipid bilayer Protein molecules scattered throughout and moving in / outside the menbrane forming mosaic structure External of the cell Internal of the cell cytoplasm protein cholesterol Carbohydrate(sugar) Channel protein

CELL MEMBRANE cytoplasm Plasma membrane based on fluid – mosaic hypothesis

 

EXTENSIVE DISTRIBUTION OF SOME CELL ORGANELLES

EXTENSIVE DISTRIBUTION OF CELL ORGANELLS

DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION / FREQUENCY OF ORGANELLES IN BODY CELL Why are there many mitochondria found in a sperm cell ? Name other cells in animal that possess a large number of mitochondria. Give example of cells that contain a large number of the following organelles . Explain why. a) Chloroplast b) Golgi body c) Ribosome Mitochondrion Nucleus Mitochondrion Mitochondria in a sperm cell Electron Micrograph of a sperm cell showing mitochondria in a neck region of the cell. head neck tail

CELL ORGANELLES Nucleus Cell membrane Mitochondrion Chloroplast Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body Ribosome structure function It contains 1.………… and 2……………… surrounded by 3…………….………………… Chromosomes consists of DNA that carries 5.………………… for the inheritance. It controlls 23…………… of cell Consists of membrane system which is very much folded in the cytoplasm. It contains 6. …..………. on the outer surface. Its function is 7…………………….. ………………………. It is located on the surface of RER . Its function is in the synthesis of 8…………………… in cell. It has the same structure as RER but contains no 9…………….. on the surface. The function of SER is 10..……………………… …. ……. The Fluid Mosaic Hypothesis Bilayer of 11………………….. which is mobile and contains 12…………………molecules scattered throughout in it. It is a 13…………. …. layered structure containing grana (that contains 14……….……) and 15……..………… (which contains 16……… .) for photosynthesis Receives 17 ..….. ......like enzymes, 18…………………, packing them to form 19….……… It is bounded by two layers of 20…………… The inner membrane is folded in the foem of stacks. Mitochondrion is considered as 21………… of a cell because its function is to generate energy for cell metabolism. Active cells like 22…………. contains a lot of mitochondrion 24 …….. Reaction takes place in the stroma Light reaction takes place in the 25…………

CELL STRUCTURE AND ORGANELLES mitochondrion Nucleus H J A G C B D F E K

INVESTIGATING CELL STRUCTURE Task : Design an experiment to investigate the structure and shape of the onion epidermal cell by refering to the steps shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 1. Write down the hypothesis of the experiment. 2. Suggest the technique used in the experiment. 3. How are you going to record the results? 4. What is the purpose of using iodine drop in the experiment ? Water droplet Scale leaf of onion scalpel Epidermis of onion Forceps Epidermal tissue Water droplet Mounting needle Cover slip slide iodine droplet Filter paper

Observing Plant Cell

Observing Animal Cell

PENYEDIAAN SLAID SEL PIPI MANUSIA Differentiate between plant and animal cell. What is the purpose of using blue methylene solution in the exp.? dropper Distilled water Glass slide Tooth pick Mounting needle Cover slip Methylene blue Filter paper

PENYEDIAAN SPESIMEN KERATAN BATANG Make a labelled drawing of a cross section and a longitudinal section through a dicotiledonous stem and a monocotiledonous stem. List out the differences between them.

Make a labelled drawing of a cross section and a longitudinal section through a dicotiledonous stem and a monocotiledonous stem.

List out the differences between them.

CELL 3-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE Amoeba Protozoa- Unicellular and free living in fresh water. How do these animals : --feed -move -reproduce -regulate their body osmosis A B C D E F G H J Name all structures labelled A – J State the function of each organelle 4. Name all structures from A to G 3. Describe nutrition, movement and reproductionin Amoeba Paramecium 5. Explain water regulation, movement and reproduction in Paramecium

Name all structures labelled A – J

State the function of each organelle

CELL ORGANISATION Binary fission in Amoeba sp. Cell organisation in multicellular organism

CELL ORGANISATION

Diagnostic test Name the parts labelled A,C,D,E,F and G. State the function of the parts labelled A,B, C,D dan G. Paramecium sp. is more advanced structurally than Amoeba sp. Explain any of the special features of Paramecium sp. that reveals it. Describe how a Paramecium sp. a) reproduces b) regulates its osmotic balance. c) carried out digestion process. 5. Name the organism in Figure 2 . B Figure 1 Figure 2 6. Describe how the locomotion, reproduction and nutrition in the microorganism in Fig.2 take place.

Name the parts labelled A,C,D,E,F and G.

State the function of the parts labelled A,B, C,D dan G.

Paramecium sp. is more advanced structurally than Amoeba sp. Explain any of the special features of Paramecium sp. that reveals it.

Describe how a Paramecium sp.

a) reproduces

b) regulates its osmotic balance.

c) carried out digestion process.

5. Name the organism in Figure 2 .

VARIETY OF CELLS

EPITHELIAL TISSUE SPECIALISED CELL Egg cell ( ovum ) is being fertilised by the sperms. Only a single sperm is capable of penetrating the ovum. Epithelial cells in the renal tubules ( of kidney) lumen Epithelial cells form a layer of epithelial tissue in lining of the renal tubules.

HUMAN CELLS AND FUNCTION

SPECIALISED CELLS Cross section of a dicot. leaf showing various cell types in the leaf. Nerve cell ( neurone) White blood cells- agranulosite CARDIAC MUCLE Skletal muscle Differentiate between an afferent neurone and an efferent neurone Describe the organisation of cells in a leaf. MUSCLE TISSUE SMOOTH MUSCLE Describe the location and function of each muscle type. Describe the structure and roles of each type of blood cells Impulse Granulosite Red blood cell BLOOD

TYPES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUES

EPITHELIAL TISSUES

CONNECTIVE TISSUES Darah Rawan

 

 

ORGANS AND THEIR FUNCTION

ORGANS FUNCTION

ORGANS FUNCTION

ORGANS FUNCTION

PLANT TISSUES Describe the important characteristics of a meristematic tissue Name the two types of meristematic tissue Explain the importance of the meristematic tissues in 2 above. Name the vascular tissues A and B. What are their functions? State all the important characteistics of both tissues A and B Vascular Tissue A:…………….. B:…………….. 6. Where are the tissues A, B and the meristematic tissue found in a plant?

Describe the important characteristics of a meristematic tissue

Name the two types of meristematic tissue

Explain the importance of the meristematic tissues in 2 above.

Name the vascular tissues A and B. What are their functions?

State all the important characteistics of both tissues A and B

PEMBAHAGIAN SEL MITOSIS A B C

 

ORGANS AND SYSTEMS IN PLANTS

PLANT CELLS p Q R S T U ……………… 1 …………… ....2 ……………… 3 ......................4 …………… ....5

Diagnostic exercises on Plant Tissues Guard cell Leaf vein air space P Q (xylem and phloem) R S 1. Name the structures P,Q,R and S. 2. Explain the structure and organisation of the palisade and spongy mesophyll in a leaf for the benefit of leaf function ( photosynthesis process). Explain the role played by a guard cell in a leaf. How are water and food substances eg. sucrose transported in a plant? Explain how the a mesophyll cell differs from an epidermal cell. Explain how water moves from xilem in leaf vein until it forms water vapour in air spaces of the spongy mesophyll.

Explain the role played by a guard cell in a leaf.

How are water and food substances eg. sucrose transported in a plant?

Explain how the a mesophyll cell differs from an epidermal cell.

Explain how water moves from xilem in leaf vein until it forms water vapour in air spaces of the spongy mesophyll.

Explain the function of xilem and phloem. What are the differences between dicot. root and dicot. stem? How does monocot. root differ from monocot. stem? Explain: (i) the components of xilem that are involved in transport of water. (ii) the components of phloem that are involved in translocation.

Explain the function of xilem and phloem.

What are the differences between dicot. root and dicot. stem?

How does monocot. root differ from monocot. stem?

Explain:

(i) the components of xilem that are involved in transport of water.

(ii) the components of phloem that are involved in translocation.

CROSS SECTION OF PLANT ROOT Identify the differences between dicot. root and monocot. root based on diagrams (a) and (b). Explain the supporting tissues in plants based on the above diagrams. List out the differences between dicot. and monocot. root.

Identify the differences between dicot. root and monocot. root based on diagrams (a) and (b).

Explain the supporting tissues in plants based on the above diagrams.

List out the differences between dicot. and monocot. root.

CROSS-SECTION OF DICOT. AND MONOCOT. STEM What are the differences between dicot. and monocot. stem? Why is wood present in dicot. plant and not in monocot.? What are the significance of paranchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma and endodermis tissues?

What are the differences between dicot. and monocot. stem?

Why is wood present in dicot. plant and not in monocot.?

What are the significance of paranchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma and endodermis tissues?

HOMEOSTASIS What? Maintainance of a relatively constant internal environment Internal environment The physical and chemical factors that affect the physiology and metabolism of the body pH temperature Osmotic pressure Glucose concentration comprises Blood plasma Tissue / interstitial fluid Why it must be kept constant? An organism may have greater environmntal freedom and greater geographycal range Salt concentration or salinity Their living is not very much restricted by temperature Water supply Saline conditions And therefore better access to food water shelter Constant environment means Constant or small changes in the internal environment i.e within the tolerance of the body How it is achieved ? negative feedback mechanism What are the consequences if there is no homeostasis or negative feedback mechanism? through A mechanism that slows down a process when there is overproduction of a substance and speeds up the process when there is underproduction of the substance. normal normal Above normal Below normal increasing decreasing Negative feedback Negative feedback Chemical or nervous coordination or There is a positive feedback , instead Positive feedback tends to deviate further the process from normal and finally will destroy or cause harmful effect to the system. Chemical / hormonal nervous examples Regulation of blood glucose by insulin and glucagon Regulation of body temperature during cold and hot days. Blood pressure Enable body cells to function optimally

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

TEMPERATURE REGULATION Erector muscles relax, hairs on on skin tend to fall down/ lowered, thus trapping thin layer of air for less insulation of body heat. Erector muscles contract, hairs on skin is raised and traps thick layer of air for insulating body heat

STRUCTURE OF SKIN

TEMPERATURE REGULATION

REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE

BLOOD GLUCOSE REGULATION

THE PANCREAS 1. Explain the function of pancreas as an endocrine organ as well as exocrine organ. 2. Name hormones and hydrolytic enzymes produced by pancreas. 3. How are those hormones and enzymes from pancreas are transported to their target organs?

OSMOREGULATION Regulation of body fluid osmotic pressure and concentration of salts (NaCl) in blood. Normal Blood osmotic pressure Normal Blood osmotic pressure Increase in osmotic pressure decrease in osmotic pressure decrease in osmotic pressure Increase in osmotic pressure More salt intake Less water intake Corrective mechanism Pituitary gland releases more ADH to kidney, causing more reabsorption of water in kidney No aldosterone released Corrective mechanism Pituitary gland releases less ADH to kidney, causing less reabsorption of water Adrenal gland releases aldosterone excess intake of water Less salt intake Less reabsorption of water in kidney More reabsorption of salts ( NaCL) Dilute blood concentrated blood homeostasis

Regulation of body fluid osmotic pressure and concentration of salts (NaCl) in blood.

Corrective mechanism

Pituitary gland releases more ADH to kidney, causing more reabsorption of water in kidney

No aldosterone released

Corrective mechanism

Pituitary gland releases less ADH to kidney, causing less reabsorption of water

Adrenal gland releases aldosterone

Less reabsorption of water in kidney

More reabsorption of salts ( NaCL)

REGULATION OF BLOOD OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE (regulation of breathing)

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