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Bibliographic Research2

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Published on October 3, 2007

Author: yilmar

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Bibliographic Research:  Bibliographic Research Online Searching Part 2 Bibliographic Research:  Bibliographic Research Searching in an online environment Find Reputable Web sites Evaluating Resources Basic Steps in Online Searching:  Basic Steps in Online Searching Identify key terms Select appropriate online databases Identify search engine features Devise search query Search the database Evaluate results Adjust search query as needed Bibliographic Research: Part One Bibliographic Research: Part Two Devise Search Query:  Devise Search Query Know the database content and functions Consider relationship of search terms to each other conceptually Consider relationship of search terms to the database content Understand search engine’s unique priority of operation when applying Boolean logical operators (used in the study of sets or set theory; aka binary logic) Slide5:  Used by permission from Katie Custis Biography Index Biology Index Theology Index Devise Search Query:  Devise Search Query Devise Boolean Search Strategies for each database keeping in mind the databases unique purpose, scope, audience and dates of coverage. Apply Limits peculiar to each database with an understanding of the command defaults, priority of operations and special features. Default (computing) = a preselected option when no alternative is specified Devise Search Query:  Devise Search Query Apply Boolean operators AND Phrase Proximity OR Synonyms Stemming, Truncation NOT (AND NOT) BOOLEAN OPERATORS:  BOOLEAN OPERATORS AND - Narrows the search - Can be thought of as BOTH - Requires that both terms be in the results - Used for combining differing concepts Messiah AND Christ the INTERSECTION of two sets -Sometimes referred to as “All of these” Messiah Christ BOOLEAN OPERATORS:  BOOLEAN OPERATORS OR - Broadens the search - Used to find one term OR another - Can be thought of as EITHER - Used to search synonymous/closely related terms Messiah OR Christ the UNION of two sets -Sometimes referred to as “Any of these” Messiah Christ BOOLEAN OPERATORS:  BOOLEAN OPERATORS NOT -Narrows a search -Used to eliminate records -Exercise extreme caution; needed concepts may be eliminated unintentionally Messiah Messiah NOT Christ Christ Messiah Null set Slide11:  BOOLEAN APPLIED Boolean Applied:  Boolean Applied Boolean logic (binary logic) is used by computer search engines to extract specific data from large databases. Internet Search engines, directories, library catalogs and subject databases use Boolean Logic (binary logic) for culling out a desired set of records Slide13:  Messiah OR Christ AND Jesus Messiah OR (Christ AND Jesus) Messiah Christ Jesus Slide14:  Messiah OR Christ AND Jesus (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus Slide15:  (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus (Messiah AND Jesus) OR (Christ AND Jesus) Slide16:  Messiah OR Christ OR Jesus Messiah AND Christ AND Jesus (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus Slide17:  Messiah OR Christ OR Jesus Slide18:  Messiah AND Christ AND Jesus Slide19:  (Messiah OR Christ) AND Jesus Applied Boolean AND:  Applied Boolean AND Phrases Narrow form of AND Double quotes = Typical command used to indicate a phrase “” “Jesus Christ” “Holy Spirit” Applied Boolean AND:  Applied Boolean AND PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN NEAR / WITHIN is a restrictive AND Designates the closeness of terms within a source document Designates the number of words by which search terms can be separated Applied Boolean AND:  w/n: within the same document where n = the maximum number of words that can come between them Jesus w/1 Messiah Applied Boolean AND PROXIMITY: NEAR or WITHIN w/s: within the same sentence w/p: within the same paragraph Pre/n before the term where n=designated number Jesus the Messiah Jesus pre/1 Messiah Applied Boolean OR:  Applied Boolean OR Synonyms Default On/Off -work, job, career, -thought, think, thinking Wildcards (replace one or more letters within a word) variant spelling: women/woman; color/colour; encyclopedia/encyclopaedia; judgment/judgement Truncation, Stemming Plurals variant endings: ed, es, ing; banks, banking, bankruptcy Typical commands used * ? + # ! Search Strategy:  bill w/3 clinton or george w/3 bush Here’s how one database will resolve this search: clinton or george bill within three or fewer words of clinton or george bush within three or fewer words of clinton or george that is also within three or fewer words of bill However, with the use of parentheses you can force the names to stay together as one search concept. For this example, you would enter: ( bill w/3 clinton ) or ( george w/3 bush) Search Strategy See “Search Tips” and “Help” menus in the database for instructions Search Strategy Exercise:  Search Strategy Exercise Using the library’s OPAC Advanced Search perform the searches illustrated on the next two slides. Then using Boolean logic/binary logic explain why the resulting hit lists are so different. Reminder: “any of these” = OR “all of these “ = AND “as a phrase” = phrase Search Strategy Exercise:  Search Strategy Exercise ANSWER Search Strategy Exercise:  Search Strategy Exercise ANSWERS Search Strategy Exercise:  Search Strategy Exercise In the ATLA (FirstSearch) database Advanced Search screen what would the search query look like if the searches resulted in these statements? (ti: jesus and ti: christ) or ti: messiah  ti: jesus and (ti: christ OR ti: messiah)  ANSWER ANSWER Search Strategy Exercise:  Search Strategy Exercise Many online databases provide help by way of showing the resulting search statement in Boolean syntax (with imbedded parenthesis ) This allows analysis of the search statement as it has been interpreted by the computer’s search engine. Adjustments may then be made to your search statement to get the intended results. Some databases will offer suggestions for improving your search results. Search Strategy Exercise:  Search Strategy Exercise Using the Academic Search Premier database Advanced search perform these searches. messiah Or christ And jesus christ Or messiah And jesus jesus And ( christ OR messiah ) Then explain which Boolean operation is being given priority. ANSWER ANSWER ANSWER Devise Search Query:  Devise Search Query Limiting Options Location Language Date Type of Document Field Truncation/Stemming Devise Search Query:  Devise Search Query Select fields Default settings Author, Personal Name Title, Source (Publication) Keyword, Abstract, Full-text Subject, Descriptor Consider the uniqueness of the terms in relation to the database content “Jesus” in an Education index cf. “Jesus” in a Religion Index Location of the term within the record (e.g. field choice) “Jesus” in the Title field cf. “Jesus” in the Subject field Evaluate Results:  Evaluate Results Kind of records retrieved How well do they meet the information need? Examine search query syntax Priority of operations Parenthetical operations performed first Hint: (a) AND (b) OR (c) = (a AND b) OR c Number of hits In relation to the database’s subject content Considering the information need Too many? Too few? Meaning of the search terms used Adjust Search Query As Needed:  Adjust Search Query As Needed Broaden/Narrow Search Change Boolean operations Change the position of terms within the search query Change field selections Change limiting options Change terminology Change databases Internet Searching:  Internet Searching To Surf or not to Surf Internet Searching:  Internet Searching The Internet versus the Library Complementary Current Events vs. Historical Research Popular vs. Scholarly Copious vs. Selective Content Haphazard vs. Standardized & Organized Unscrupulous vs. Scrutinized Transient vs. Permanent Internet Searching:  Internet Searching Surface Web Deep Web (Invisible Web) Search Engines Subject Directories The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Surface Web:  Surface Web Only 30% of the entire Internet Accessed by search engines subject directories Content Popular, Personal, Public Domain Static fixed Web pages Deep Web (Invisible Web):  Deep Web (Invisible Web) 70% of the Internet Accessed by direct query or authorization Content: Information stored in Databases mounted on the Web Scholarly resources; targeted topics Library OPAC’s, subject specific databases News, Business, Directories; Phone Books, Multimedia, Graphic Files, Digital Exhibits Deep Web (Invisible Web):  Deep Web (Invisible Web) Search engines cannot/will not index this information. Some subject directories will link to these sites For more information see: http://library.albany.edu/internet/deepweb.html Internet Searching:  Internet Searching Search Engines Specific site wanted (e.g. Lord of the Rings, Lakers, CNN) 40% overlap among them No quality control Uses robots, web crawlers, spiders, etc. to match characters in specific fields Hit lists ranked based on paid inclusion programs (except Google which has a separate sponsor list) Internet Searching:  Internet Searching Subject Directories Topical searches (e.g. movies, sports, news) No particular site in mind Some are created and maintained by librarians, scholars and subject specialists Identify Reputable Internet Sites:  Identify Reputable Internet Sites Scout Report http://scout.wisc.edu/ INFOMINE – Scholarly Internet Resource Collections: http://infomine.ucr.edu/ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online  “Britannica Internet Guide“ Use Subject Directories created and maintained by scholars, subject specialists and librarians: Identify Reputable Internet Sites:  Identify Reputable Internet Sites The Digital Librarian http://www.digital-librarian.com/ The Internet Public Library http://www.ipl.org/ BUBL Link (British) http://bubl.ac.uk/ Identify Reputable Internet Sites:  Identify Reputable Internet Sites TMC Library OPAC TMC Library Web Resources WorldCat (FirstSearch) See next slide for instructions Intelligent Searching:  Intelligent Searching A ~”name” reflects a personal site representing a personal viewpoint Clues of Caution when searching the public Internet… in the URL: A .com or .org typically provides biased information The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Intelligent Searching:  Intelligent Searching …on the site itself: Comic or incendiary language Lack of ownership or author Lack of currency Bias towards audience, or slant of information; positive without the negative; one sided Intelligent Searching:  Intelligent Searching Check domain names with a registry agency: register.com More about domain names: http://florin.syr.edu/webarch/domains.php3 Search Smart: Check underlying pages, top level pages, and links Look up the domain registry page at the appropriate registry agency: :  Look up the domain registry page at the appropriate registry agency: For .com, .edu, .net, .org : www.networksolutions.com/cgi-bin/whois/whois For .gov (U.S. government) : www.nic.gov/cgi-bin/whois For .mil (U.S. military) : www.nic.mil/cgi-bin/whois Look up the domain registry page at the appropriate registry agency::  Look up the domain registry page at the appropriate registry agency: For Asian-Pacific : www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/whois.pl For European : www.ripe.net/cgi-bin/whois The rest of the world: www.uninett.no/navn/domreg.html Intelligent Searching:  Intelligent Searching Visit web sites that post hoaxes Does it have the HON seal: Health on the Net foundation Look for Web site awards or other organizational “seals of approval” Professional associations Evaluate Everything Physical AND Electronic:  Evaluate Everything Physical AND Electronic Consider the following: Purpose and Scope Source, Authorship, Publishing Body Content and Currency Style and Functionality Bias Verifiability Evaluating Resources:  Evaluating Resources These Research Guides will be helpful Evaluating Resources www.masters.edu/rgevaluatingresources An easy way to help evaluate the usefulness of research resources both paper and electronic Covers purpose, source, content, style and functionality Web Page Evaluation www.masters.edu/rgwebpageevaluation Evaluating Resources:  Evaluating Resources Use Subject Directories to find Web sites that teach how to evaluate resources Library Web site Web Resources Topic – Research/Writing Type – All Types Sub-topic – Evaluating Resources Evaluating Internet Resources:  Evaluating Internet Resources Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask, UC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Evaluate.html Evaluating Information Found on the Internet, Johns Hopkins University - http://www.library.jhu.edu/researchhelp/general/evaluating/ Evaluating Internet Resources:  Evaluating Internet Resources Evaluating Internet Resources, University at Albany, SUNY,- http://library.albany.edu/internet/evaluate.html Evaluating Web Pages, Duke University - http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/evaluating_web.htm Evaluating Internet Resources:  Evaluating Internet Resources Librarians' Internet Index - http://lii.org/ For annotated descriptions of many good guides to evaluating Web pages search the subject: “Evaluation of Internet Resources” Now you know how to …:  Now you know how to … Search Online Find Reputable Web sites Evaluate Resources Citing Sources:  Citing Sources Subject search for “report writing”, “authorship” or “technical writing” Title Search – use respective acronym apa, mla, cbe NOTE: “Turabian” is the author not the title Call numbers: 808.02; 808.06 Use OPAC to find Manuals of Style Manuals of Style:  Manuals of Style APA - American Psychological Association MLA - Modern Language Association CBE - Council of Biology Editors Turabian - Manual for writers of term papers, thesis and dissertations by Kate L. Turabian (see also Chicago) Chicago Manual of Style (see also Turabian) Citing Sources:  Citing Sources For more information go to Library Web page Web Resources Research/Writing Citing Sources Bibliographic Management Software:  Bibliographic Management Software Create personal databases References can also be imported from online databases, CD-ROM’s or text files Automatically formats the paper and the bibliography to any selected publication style Instantly change the format for another publication Many online databases provide exporting options for sending articles identified in the database to these bibliographic management tools. Bibliographic Management Software:  Bibliographic Management Software Desk top products: ProCite® (Thomson ResearchSoft) EndNote® (Thomson ResearchSoft) Reference Manager® (Thomson ResearchSoft) Web based products: WriteNote® (Thomson ResearchSoft) RefWorks Slide65:  The end. Questions? From the library Web site select Library Services  Ask-A-Librarian or go to http://www.masters.edu/libraries/AskALibrarian.asp BIBLIOGRAPHY:  BIBLIOGRAPHY Research Strategies Internet Searching Helps Search Engines Subject Directories Evaluating Resources Research Strategies:  Research Strategies Badke. Research Strategies: finding your way through the information fog. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press / iUniverse.com, 2000 ISBN: 0595100821; Price: $15 est. DDC: 001.42/B142r/2000 http://www.acts.twu.ca/LBR/research.htm Internet Search Helps:  Internet Search Helps UC Berkeley http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/FindInfo.html University of Albany http://library.albany.edu/internet/searchnet.html Internet Search Helps:  Internet Search Helps “How to choose a Search Engine or a Subject Directory” http://library.albany.edu/internet/choose.html Search Engines & Subject Directories:  Search Engines & Subject Directories University of Tennessee Search Engines http://www.lib.utk.edu/refs/search.html  Search Engine Watch http://www.searchenginewatch.com SearchIQ http://www.zdnet.com/searchiq/ Search Engines:  Search Engines Go to University at Albany http://library.albany.edu/internet/engines.html for an abstracted list of: Search Engines, Meta Search Engines, Deep Web Collectors, Specialty Search Engines, Domain names, Multi-media & Images finders, New Page Trackers Subject Directories:  Subject Directories Go to University at Albany http://library.albany.edu/internet/subject.html for an abstracted list of : Academic & Professional Subject Directories Commercial Directories & Portals Evaluate Everything Physical AND Electronic:  Evaluate Everything Physical AND Electronic http://milton.mse.jhu.edu:8001/research/education/net.html http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Evaluation.html Answers to Search Query Exercises:  Answers to Search Query Exercises Search one resulted in ("jesus")[in Title] AND ("christ")[in Title] OR ("messiah")[in Title] with 454 records. The search engine performed the AND operation first then it applied the OR Messiah. The results contain the records with both Jesus AND Christ in them as well as all the records with the term Messiah in them. It could be written this way (jesus AND christ) OR messiah BACK Answers to Search Query Exercises:  Answers to Search Query Exercises Search two resulted in ("jesus")[in Title] AND (christ OR messiah)[in Title] resulting in 378 records. The search engine performed the OR operation first then it applied the AND operation to it. The results contain those records with both Jesus AND Christ in them as well as Jesus AND Messiah in them. The search statement could be written like this jesus AND (christ OR messiah) BACK Answers to Search Query Exercises:  Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK Answers to Search Query Exercises:  Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK Answers to Search Query Exercises:  Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK messiah Or christ And jesus  resulted in 7214 records with the AND operation being performed first then the OR operation. The hit list contains all the records with both christ AND jesus and well as all the records with the term messiah. It can be written this way messiah OR (christ AND jesus) Answers to Search Query Exercises:  Answers to Search Query Exercises BACK Christ OR messiah AND jesus resulted in 12592 records with the AND operation being performed first then the OR operation. The hit list contains all the records with both jesus AND messiah as well as all the records with Christ. It can be written christ OR (messiah AND Jesus) Answers to Search Query Exercises:  Answers to Search Query Exercises jesus AND (christ OR messiah) resulted in 6323 records. The OR operation was performed first then the AND. The hit list contains all the records with jesus AND christ as well as all the records with jesus AND messiah. BACK

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