Published on February 18, 2014
} The Path to Net Zero The Process of Progressions Current Practice 25% reduction 50% reduction A Net Zero Energy House produces as much energy as it uses on an annual basis. This presentation focusses on how to get there. 75% reduction Net Zero Energy
} Focus of measures in progressions Reductions most cost-effective in this order Air tightness measures Increase insulation Water conservation Mechanicals Renewables
} NRCan targets/goals for Industry Capacity exceeds code requirements Issues Concerns Challenges Innovations on the horizon
} Energy Intensity Energy Intensity vs. House Size Issues Concerns Challenges
} Series of challenges to reduce various loads Energy End Use Patterns Lighting 5% Appliances 13% Water 17% Space 65% Lighting 6% Space 57% Appliances 16% Water 21% Reduce space heating load Air tightness measures Insulation Measures Reduce water heating load ERS80 (PRE-2012 R-2000) Lighting 10% Space 26% Water 20% Fixtures ERS86 (conventional HVAC) Drainwater Heat Recovery Meeting DWH load becomes biggest challenge Net Zero Energy (non-solar thermal) Mechanicals designed around low temp hot water delivery Appliances 44% Lighting 13% Space 33% Net Zero Energy (solar thermal option) Note: Ventilation included in ‘Space’ component in charts, ranges from 2% of overall energy load in ERS80 to 9% in NZE Small loads, can sacrifice efficiency @ blower Electrical base loads Appliances 46% Water 8% Minimal electrical loads @ fans/ pumps Primarily occupant driven Builder has minimal impact
} Energy Analysis & Financial Evaluation Work Flow Select target reduction from baseline Measures taken in initial progressions impact the types of measures (and associated costs) further down the path to Net Zero Energy. Model for 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% reductions from baseline Select regionally appropriate assemblies to increase insulation levels Specify high performance mechanicals and renewables Estimate regional fuel costs Revisit, Revise, Rethink Excel worksheet Costings Loads w/fuel equivalents Energy contributions Revise to targets IRR/ simple payback Incremental capital costs over baseline Reductions in purchased fuel Contributions from Renewables Offsets to purchased fuel (DWHR)
} Progressions Ramping it up ERS 80 (Existing R2000) ERS80↓25% ESNH • Performance Path, NSBC 2010, OBC 2012, NBC 2012 • NOTE: R2000 requires 1.5ACH @ 50Pa but ERS80 does not • Air sealing: key for production builders – close in on 1.5 ACH • Increase insulation -- Use exterior air barriers/rigid board ins. to help reduce ACH • Higher efficiency conventional mechanicals (incl. HRV) ERS80↓50% R-2000 • Envelope: Further air sealing (1.0 ACH vs. 1.5 ACH), increase insulation, upgrade windows • Hot water conservation – DWHR • Higher efficiency, smaller space heating equipment • Integrated mechanicals? ERS80↓75% • Last push @ envelope: emerging high-efficiency materials/windows • Mechanicals: Integrated, renewables, match load, supply temps to delivery • DHW is the load challenge • Emerging technologies: air to water heat pumps, solar thermal concentrators, co-generation Net Zero Energy • Choose mechanicals to reduce electrical loads as well as heating loads • Reduce all possible electrical loading (LEDs, Energy Star appliances, motion detectors) • Site-generated electricity production to match anticipated loads Air sealing & increasing insulation highest priorities for ERS80↓25% & ERS80↓50% Mechanicals are the highest priorities for ERS80↓75% Renewables are the highest priorities for NZE
} Materials and Assemblies Like standard practice, only better Exterior insulation Combinations Fig. 1 Innovative materials Assembly Issues Brick ledge Fig. 2 Fasteners Window bucks & details Drainage plane Construction Issues Trades scheduling Fig. 3 Inspectors
} Materials and Assemblies Like standard practice, only better Tried & True Air sealing interior VDR Insulating with foam or fibre Innovative Quad glass with 2 suspended films, krypton fill Vacuum Insulated panels: RSI 22.7/mm (R30/inch)
} Like standard practice, only better Mechanicals Hot water coil Integrated systems Space and water heating/cooling Air handler Evaporator Coil (cooling) optional Space/water & ventilation Flexibility of energy sources What types? How many? Issues Integrated Space Conditioning and Water Heating (forced air) Preplanning Servicing non-conventional systems Distribution systems Air to Water Heat Pump (hydronic space conditioning and water heating)
} Renewables Always cheaper to save a Watt than make a Watt Reduce loads Space heating Water heating Lighting Appliances Builder can only supply a house than can approach net zero energy Energy usage dependent on occupant lifestyle Preplanning Solar thermal PV Micro co-generation District energy
} Regional Differences What works in different areas Assemblies & materials Mechanicals Airtightness Labour/Trades Fuel Costs/Perceptions
} Builder Type – Economies of Scale Large/Mid-size Production or Custom Scheduling issues Labour/training issues Client interaction Market Dynamics
Financial Valuation of Premiums Simple Payback: the point on the graph where the cost of the investment is recovered. Expressed in years or months Capital Expenditure Years after capital expenditure Internal Rate of Return: All cash flows (+/-) } the point on the graph where the costs of the investment equal the benefits of the investment. Expressed as a percentage that represents how well your investment is working for you each year after you have taken care of all of your costs. Internal Rate of Return vs. Payback What is Payback • The time required for the return on an investment to “repay” the sum of the original investment. What is Internal Rate of Return (IRR)? • Tells you how well your money is working for you compared to other investments or costs of borrowing. • Indicator of the efficiency, quality or yield of an Planning Horizon (years) investment.
} Communicating IRR to the Client Perceptions of Costs Simple Payback: “The quicker the better” vs. long-term investment How to talk about IRR? costs benefits • IRR of 10% over 10 years for NZE construction/mechanicals can be compared to interest on the increased mortgage principal needed for the premium to be paid over and above the baseline construction and mechanicals
} 2-storey w/ basement ERS80 Baseline ESNH/R-2000 Upgrade Package (Ottawa) 12 House Characteristics 10 325 m2 (3,500 s.f.) living space 12 4 2 storey house + finished basement >15% glazing A5 HOUSE 3 FRONT ELEVATION ID Library Part Na... Quantity W x H Size 2D Symbol 1:64 A5 Door Legend D1 10 D1 Entrance 10 D1 Entrance 10 D1 Garage 1 10 5 1 1 1 0.813x2.000 1.067x2.100 1.219x2.100 3.048x2.134 HOUSE 3 REAR ELEVATION D1 Pocket 10 1 0.762x2.100 1:64 Attached garage D2 10 1 1.800x2.100 Conventional mechanicals 12 10 3D Front View A5 HOUSE 3 DOOR SCHEDULE 1:1 12 4 A5 HOUSE 3 FRONT ELEVATION ID Library Part Na... Quantity W x H Size 2D Symbol 1:64 A5 Door Legend D1 10 D1 Entrance 10 D1 Entrance 10 D1 Garage 1 10 5 1 1 1 0.813x2.000 1.067x2.100 1.219x2.100 3.048x2.134 HOUSE 3 REAR ELEVATION D1 Pocket 10 1 0.762x2.100 D2 10 1 1.800x2.100 3D Front View A5 HOUSE 3 DOOR SCHEDULE 1:1 1:64
} ESNH/R-2000 Upgrade Package (Ottawa) 2-storey w/ basement ERS80 Baseline Total heated space = 3,500 s.f. HOUSE 3 5.11 HOUSE 3 • • BELOW-GRADE WALLS: RSI 2.1/R12 fibreglass batt interior standoff wall • ABOVE-GRADE WALLS: RSI 3.9/R22 fibreglass batt • 98 2.93 ATTIC: RSI 8.8/R50 blown cellulose BELOW SLAB: RSI 1.8/R10 WINDOWS: Low-e, argon-filled, insulating spacers, vinyl frames 8.60 8.88 BEDROOM Air tightness: 4.55 ACH • 2.42 BEDROOM 2.42 INTERIOR AREA: 41.538 m2 BEDROOM 4.83 2.09 38mm x 140mm framing @ 400mm O.C. drywall 46 HOUSE 3 HOUSE 3 5.72 HOUSE 3 HOUSE 3 3.17 5'-11" by 6'-11" 1:64 38mm x 140mm framing @ 400mm O.C. drywall 2.89 2.95 3'-6" 6'-11" 61 2'-8" by 6'-7" 13 13 12 12 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 GARAGE 9'1" CEILING HEIGHT 5.64 6 9.49 9 8 8.60 9 3'by 6' 11 10 7 8.88 11 10 11.13 3.84 KITCHEN INTERIOR AREA: 48.9119 m2 3'by 6' LIVING 38 mmx235mm floor joists @ 400mm O.C. 18.5mm T&G plywood 4.83 10' by 7' 45 4' 6'-11" 1.65 1.65 2.31 1.65 1.27 2.59 1.26 4.27 5.11 HOUSE 3 HOUSE 3 HOUSE 3 • 1:64 HOUSE 3 WATER HEATING: 67% AFUE 60 gal tank VENTILATION: 60% sensible efficiency 61 3.66 SPACE HEATING: 92% AFUE gas furnace • 61 • • HOUSE 3 5.11 SLAB ON GRADE W LAUNDRY 13 12 11 10 9 8 8.88 INTERIOR AREA: 37.5537m 2 7 6 FINISHED SLAB ON GRADE 5 4 3 2 1 38 mmx235mm floor joists @ 400mm O.C. 18.5mm T&G plywood 4.53 UNEXCAVATED 1.65 HOUSE 3 MAIN FLOOR 8.29 A2 8.88 HOUSE 3 UPPER FLOOR PLAN F A3 HOUSE 3 61 61 2.56 5.11 4.27 FINISHED BASEMENT AREA: 45.3768 m2 HOUSE 3 HOUSE 3 HOUSE 3 A1 HOUSE 3 FOUNDATION 1:64
} ESNH (ERS80↓25%) Package, Ottawa Measure RSI 10.6/R60 attic RSI 6.3/R32 above grade walls RSI 3.9/R22 below grade walls 86% AFUE Instantaneous gas DHW 75% Efficient HRV DWHR Upgrade Cost GJ saved $540 $6815 $818 46.47 GJ Changes from ERS80 ESNH Envelope (ERS80↓25%): • Air tightness: 2.0 ACH 7.90 GJ • ATTIC: RSI 10.6/R60 blown cellulose $300 -1.82 GJ • $500 2.63 GJ ABOVE-GRADE WALLS: RSI 3.9/R22 fibreglass batt plus 2” Type IV exterior (or 1.5” polyisocyanurate) 10” fdn wall for brick siding • BELOW-GRADE WALLS: RSI 3.9/R22 fibreglass batt interior standoff wall • BELOW SLAB: RSI 1.8/R10, no change from baseline Rental vs. $1100
} R-2000 (ERS80↓50%) Package, Ottawa Measure RSI 10.6/R60 attic RSI 7.0/R40 above grade walls RSI 4.9/R28 below grade walls 86% AFUE Instantaneous gas DHW Upgrade Cost GJ saved $540 $15744 $2314 63.99 GJ Changes from ERS80 R2000 Envelope (ERS80↓50%): DWHR 7.90 GJ $300 -1.82 GJ $500 AIR TIGHTNESS: 1.0 ACH • ATTIC: RSI 10.6/R60 blown cellulose • ABOVE-GRADE WALLS: RSI 3.9/R22 fibreglass batt plus 2.5” polyisocyanurate 10” fdn wall for brick siding • 75% Efficient HRV Rental vs. $1100 • BELOW-GRADE WALLS: RSI 3.9/R22 fibreglass batt interior standoff wall plus 1.5” Type IV exterior • BELOW SLAB: RSI 1.8/R10, no change from baseline 2.63 GJ Main upgrades from ESNH (ERS80↓25%): Air tightness from 2.0 to 1.0 Below Grade Walls from RSI 3.9/R22 to RSI 4.9/R28 Above Grade Walls from RSI 6.3/R32 to RSI 7.0/R40
} ESNH/R-2000 Upgrade Package (Ottawa) ERS 80 ESNH Reductions from ERS80 Space heating R-2000 • • Space heating 108.41 GJ Water heating 23.92 GJ Base loads 31.53 GJ 61.93 GJ 44.42 GJ • ERS80: 94% gas furnace ( AFUE) ESNH: no change from baseline R-2000: no change from baseline Water heating 16.01 GJ 15.99 GJ • • • 31.53 GJ 31.53 GJ ERS80: .67 AFUE gas (tank) ESNH: instantaneous gas water heater 0.86 EF R-2000: instantaneous gas water heater 0.92 EF Hot water load reduced by: ACH@50Pa 4.55 2.0 1.0 • • ESNH: 33.05% ERS86: 33.15% Ventilation • • • ERS80: 60% EF HRV ESNH: 75% EF HRV R-2000: 75% EF HRV
} ESNH/R-2000 Upgrade Package (Ottawa) Estimated Median Cost Increase of Progression for ERS80↓25% (ESNH)! $12,000" Reductions from ERS80 Cost increase • ESNH – 25% $10,000" • Envelope - $8,173 $6,000" • Mechanicals - $1,900 $4,000" • Package - $10,073 $8,000" $2,000" • $0" Vancouver" Kamloops" GTA" Ottawa" Sudbury" Nova Scotia" R-2000 – 50% • • Mechanicals - $1,900 • Estimated Median Cost Increase of Progression for ERS80↓50% (R-2000)! Envelope - $18,598 Package - $20,498 $25,000" IRR/Simple Payback – 10 years with annualized capital costs over the 10 years $20,000" $15,000" $10,000" • $5,000" $0" Vancouver" Kamloops" GTA" Ottawa" Sudbury" Nova Scotia" ESNH - none • R2000 - none
} Denim Homes/Nova Scotia Power Demonstration House: ERS96 ERS80↓75% House Characteristics 214 m2 (2,300 s.f.) living space 2-storey slab-on-grade No garage 3.76kW p Photovoltaics (PV) (16 * 235W modules) 4 flat-plate solar thermal collectors
} Denim Homes/Nova Scotia Power Demonstration House: ERS96 ERS80↓75% Final ERS = 96 Measure ERS Mechanicals • Air-to-Air heat pump (primary heating & cooling) • Solar thermal and two drainwater heat recovery (DWHR) units • Radiant heating system in floor is fed by excess from DWHR and two solar thermal collectors Total heated space = 2,300 s.f. 80 Improved Envelope Renewables 96 This house features selective glazing. The south and west facing windows are double-pane units to take advantage of passive solar gain. The north facing windows, which don’t contribute to solar gain, are triple-pane units. ATTIC: RSI 10.6/R60 blown cellulose • ABOVE-GRADE WALLS: RSI 7.4/R42 wet sprayed cellulose & 75mm (1.5 inches) rigid board • BELOW SLAB: RSI 4.4/R25 Type III • WINDOWS: Low-e, argon-filled, insulating spacers, vinyl frames, • Benchmark (NS Code) • SPACE CONDITIONING: Air-Source Heat Pump, with Solar Thermal in-floor • WATER HEATING: Solar, DWHR, electric boost • VENTILATION: • High efficiency HRV
} Denim Homes/Nova Scotia Power Demonstration House: ERS96 ERS80↓75% Wall Detail Double 2x4 stud wall on 2x10 plate Fibre-cement siding 3/8” vertical PT lath @ 800mm (24”) o.c. (rainscreen) Housewrap 7/16” sheathing Double 2x4 staggered stud walls @ 800mm (24”) o.c. on 2x10 plates RSI6.3/R36 wet-spray cellulose RSI 1.3/R7.5 foil-faced rigid insulation Drywall, taped and sealed Staggering eliminates thermal bridging Rainscreen detail Foil-faced rigid board to interior provides air barrier Wet-spray cellulose stays in place, can have higher density, higher R-value per unit thickness Headers are filled with RSI 7/R40 high-density spray foam Staggered Double Stud Wall, Corner Detail
} BC Green Dream Home Getting to Net Zero Energy House Characteristics 301m2 (3,237 s.f.) 2storey with walkout basement Attached garage 8.3 kWp Photovoltaics (PV) (36 * 190W modules) (8 * 190W modules) 2 evacuated tube solar thermal collectors
} BC Green Dream Home Measure Benchmark (Envelope) Getting to Net Zero Energy ERS Estimated MJ 85 90,390 Thermal Envelope = ERS85 38,265 Improved Mechanicals Renewables House Characteristics 101 Ceiling RSI 10.6 (R-60) (6,720) Foundation walls RSI 7.5 (R-44) Main walls RSI 7.5 (R-44) Slab RSI 3.5 (R-20) Windows 3-pane, low-E 10 (soft coat), 13mm argon fill, insulating spacers, vinyl frames Attic Insulation: 75mm (3 inches) urethane foam 400mm (16 inches) blown cellulose Footing to Rafter ICF construction: Total 273mm (10 ¾ inches) foam 0.68 ACH@50Pa (0.5ACH target) Mechanicals Space heating: Geothermal Water Heating Solar DHW + HP preheat, DWHR, secondary electric boost as required Ventilation: HRV Space Cooling: Geothermal
} BC Green Dream Home Getting to Net Zero Energy Geothermal (5.1 COP per Secondary Solar Water Heating System manufacturer) feeds space heating and pre-heats DHW Solar thermal and drainwater heat recovery (DWHR) unit reduce hot water load Secondary electric tank boosts DHW Annual DHW energy Primary Drainwater Heat Recovery requirement = 4000 kWh Solar contributes 2100 kWh-e Geothermal Heat Pump Desuperheater DWHR contributes 460 kWh-e Solar DHW Array
} BC Green Dream Home Getting to Net Zero Energy Electrical load Lighting, appliances, electronics, exterior Solar DHW Array 6.8 kW Roof Mounted Array CMHC default: 24 kWh/day Actual Load: 11.5 kWh/day PV: 8.3 kWpeak capacity Modelled energy production 9940 kWh/yr Monitored energy production (Jun-Sep 2010) = -0.4% under 1.5 kW Bi-Facial Balcony Array model
} BC Green Dream Home Getting to Net Zero Energy PV optimized by using shadow modelling to determine array placement and ‘string’ arrangement. Innovative ‘bi-facial’ PV panels used in vertical installation as balcony guard. 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 X 1 4X 4 4 X3 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 X 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 Strings 1 & 2 è (18 modules) Inverter 1 All energy used and produced is monitored. Strings 3 & 4 è (18 modules) Inverter 2 Photo courtesy: www.greendreamhome.ca
} BC Green Dream Home Getting to Net Zero Energy 33% Cost Increase over ERS80 baseline: Envelope: $40,000 Mechanicals $10,000 PV: $50,000 Package: $100,000 Finish package = $200,000 Construction Cost = $600,000 Land cost = $150,000 ROI/payback unknown Photos courtesy: www.greendreamhome.ca
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