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Published on January 12, 2008

Author: Miranda

Source: authorstream.com

1999 Cypress Basin Ranchers :  1999 Cypress Basin Ranchers Bermudagrass:  Bermudagrass Fertilization Establishment and Weed Control Environment:  Environment 1999 Mild Winter Wet Spring Insects Grasshoppers Dry Fall Mild Dry Winter to date 2000 Anybodies guess NOAA Mild Winter Continued dry spell lower than normal rainfall higher than normal temperatures No true relief in site Rooting Barriers stubborn problem:  Rooting Barriers stubborn problem Root growth affects Water availability Forage Production Input Response Types Physical Clay Layer Traffic Pans Chemical Subsoil Acidity Nutrient Stratification Subsoiling/plowing:  Subsoiling/plowing Multiple Implements paraplow, aeroway, etc. standard chisel or disc Timing During dormancy preferably drier soil increase pan shatter prior to spring rains bermuda recovery Soil Testing:  Soil Testing Identify Fields Multiple samples Individual fields Stratification or subsoil acidity 0-2” 2”-6” Composite and Mail Multiple Labs TAMU others Subsoil Nutrient Availability:  Subsoil Nutrient Availability Nutrient Movement Root interception Mass Flow Diffusion Stratification P, Ca, Zn, Cu, etc. mostly during cold (January) or dry (August) periods Subsoil acidity Differential pH levels mimics pan and stratification damage Soil Fertility:  Soil Fertility Chemical Soil pH Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Secondary Micronutrients Physical Texture Structure Infiltration rate Utility Aesthetics Crop selectivity Lieberg’s Law of Limits:  Lieberg’s Law of Limits Water Barrel Model Water=Yield Increase stave length, increases yield Management issues Controlled Nutrients Uncontrolled Weather Soil Fertility Management:  Soil Fertility Management Soil Test Proactive Mentality Utilize available nutrients Controlled nutrient “mining” Nutrient Removal “Renter” Mentality Replacement of mined nutrients Nutrient removed (lbs/ac) by grazing and hay production:  Nutrient removed (lbs/ac) by grazing and hay production Fertility Management:  Fertility Management Nitrogen: Bermudagrass Grazing:180 units/year: include recycled Hay: most responsive with early harvests Hybrid Bermuda: 100 units/cutting, split others: 60 units/cutting Phosphorus: 60 - 120 units per year pH dependent build up with manure Fertility Management:  Fertility Management Potassium: Tricky Grazing: limited Hay: depletion First indication: Winter kill Late application may be more important examine roots in late summer fertilize for Ryegrass Requirements Fertility Management:  Fertility Management Soil pH: limits nutrient availability Cool season more intolerant Ryegrass/small grains: pH>5.8 Clovers: highly specific watch for subsoil pH problems top 1-2” pH>5.5 subsoils pH< 5.0 Fertility Management:  Fertility Management Secondary: Ca, Mg, S. Ca, Mg: adjust with lime ag lime stays in top 2” gypsum moves down, but expensive gypsum board?? Sulfur becoming more important Micronutrients: Zn, Cu, others pH regulates pH<5.5: Zn, Cu, others pH>7.5: Fe, others manure: build up of Cu Variety Selection:  Variety Selection Hybrid Bermudagrass Variety yield response at Overton:  Hybrid Bermudagrass Variety yield response at Overton Hybrid Bermudagrass: Ardmore, OK:  Hybrid Bermudagrass: Ardmore, OK Hybrid Bermudagrass:  Hybrid Bermudagrass Coastal and Tifton-44 are proven winter hardy Tifton-85 compared to Coastal Easier to establish in Drought year 22 RD’s planted 98/99: T85 - 17, Coastal - 11 higher digestibility, yield (3+ years) maintains CP later into the winter ~16% in Feb, 2000 at Overton winter hardiness ? Jiggs, Brazos similar to T-85, Rust in Jiggs World Feeder poor yield response from unbiased studies Seeded Bermudagrass tons/acre:  Seeded Bermudagrass tons/acre Seeded Bermudagrass:  Seeded Bermudagrass Notes: Small acreage planting very feasible All seeded varieties tested had similar yield to ‘Coastal’, Texas Tough had yields competitive with Tifton-85 Most new ‘varieties’ are “Giant” blends Texas Tough, Ranchero Frio, Terra Verde Giant = NK-37 Disease susceptible lacks persistence Establishment:  Establishment “Hybrid” Seedbed Well tilled, clean firm seedbed required Blacklands need mellowing time Sprigging Rate 15-50 bu./ac. Planting Date Rhisomes: Feb-April Stolons: April-May Tops: May-June Pre-emerge Weedmaster Common (seeded) Seedbed Establishment clean tilled Overseed/renovate no-till Seeding Rate 5-15 lbs./ac. Planting Date Establishment April-May Overseeding: February No Pre-emerge Sprigs:  Sprigs Do’s Buy the best possible sprigs Keep cool and moist Plant ASAP Disk and Pack soon after planting “Top” off Control weeds Don’ts buy cheap sprigs Park in the sun let dry get too hot wait to plant until be sloppy Over defoliate apply “unlabeled” herbicides Weed Control:  Weed Control Highest return/$ spring weeds shade bermudagrass Herbicide vs. Fertilizer IPM Defoliation Mowing Grazing Biological Fire Grazing Crop Competition Herbicides Labeled Herbicides Broadleaves:  Labeled Herbicides Broadleaves 2,4-D: annual broadleaf Dicamba: Weedmaster Picloram: Grazon P+D: clover residual Sulfanyl Urea: Ally, Amber specific weed tolerance and susceptibility Residual activity annual weeds legumes Rave: Dicamba + Amber Labeled Herbicides Grasses:  Labeled Herbicides Grasses Weedmaster: Sprigging bermudagrass Velpar: smutgrass Ally: bahiagrass some annual grasses (?) Amber: some annual grasses (?) soil residual (?) Roundup: new uses Gramoxone: Tall fescue afternoon applications Management:  Management Grazing Stocking Rate Stocking Pattern Hay Maturity Seasonality Total Package Soil, Weed, Crop, Animal, and defoliation pattern Stocking Rate:  Stocking Rate Gain per animal Individual Decreases with SR Pizza model Gain per acre Unit area Increases, then decreases with SR Proper SR is between 1 & 2 2-6 ac/au Intensive Grazing:  Intensive Grazing Forage Quality:  Forage Quality Digestibility maturity season Crude protein maturity soil nitrogen Hay harvest 25-32 days Vegetative growth Spring: 32 day Summer: 25 day Maturity and nitrogen rate effects on digestibility and crude protein.:  Maturity and nitrogen rate effects on digestibility and crude protein. Organic matter digestibility of bermudagrass varieties over time:  Organic matter digestibility of bermudagrass varieties over time Bermudagrass Growth Curve Dallas Data:  Bermudagrass Growth Curve Dallas Data Forage Production Peak: 6/22 Quality decreases Reduce Pressure in July Cut hay in May-June Sell and Cull before August decrease SR beat fall rush Spring drought signals plan change Summary:  Summary Renovation review subsoil in Feb. replant if needed Fertilization Don’t guess, soil test K is critical for survival 4-1-3 NPK ratio recommended Varieties New T-85, Jiggs Brazos Texas Tough, Cheyenne Old Coastal, T-44 Common Plant Properly “Coastal” Weedmaster Summary Growth Curve Management:  Summary Growth Curve Management Hay Harvest Quality sells, Quantity counts Early maturity Proper fertility May/June harvest are most economical Late harvests may be required Grazing Adjust grazing to meet forage growth Flexible SR Animal gains greatest in spring Animal gains limited after July

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