Published on March 3, 2014
Being able to accommodate activity's formal purposes as a critical factor when designing for 'location-based learning games' at scale Javier Melero, Davinia Hernández-Leo, Josep Blat Interactive Technologies Group Universitat Pompeu Fabra BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014
OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Location-based games design: A puzzle board metaphor 3. Teachers’ designs: 3 real case studies 4. “QuesTInSitu: The Game” 5. Implementation of the designs: Impact on students 6. Discussion and conclusions BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014
INTRODUCTION • M-learning: facilitate informal learning in formal context (Pachler, Bachmair, & Cook, 2010). Students can learn anytime and anywhere (Jones & Jo, 2004; Vinu et al., 2011) • Location-based games: approaches based on pervasive mobile learning that support contextualized learning (Avouris & Yiannoutsou, 2012) • Benefits: access to contextualized information (Avouris & Yiannoutsou, 2012); communication, analysis and interrelation of real place (Roschelle, 2003); entertaining and stimulating (Cabrera et al., 2005; Davis, 2002); and effective in terms of increasing the motivation to learn (Yatani, Onuma, Sugimoto, & Kusunoki, 2004) The comprehensive integration of educational games in formal learning settings is still a challenge that shapes several interdisciplinary research problems in the domain of GBL BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 3
INTRODUCTION • For learning games to be relevant in formal education they need to be aligned with the curriculum and adapted to teachers’ requirements depending on their particular educational situations • Some research works have been done to support the development of location-based learning games: “Treasure-HIT” (Kohen-Vacs, Ronen, & Cohen, 2012); “ARLearn” (Ternier, Klemke, Kalz, van Ulzen, & Specht, 2012); “Mobilogue” (Giemza & Hoppe, 2013) • Issue: current tools do not allow the customisation of elements, such as scores, that can be relevant to formal learning contexts Providing with flexible and customizable approaches to involve teachers as designers of their own location-based games can make significant difference to foster designs at scale BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 4
LOCATION-BASED GAMES DESIGN A puzzle board metaphor A puzzle board metaphor for designing location-based learning games • Motivation: to provide teachers with a framework for the customization of their own location-based games adapted to their requirements depending on their particular educational situations • The structural design of location-based learning games is often inspired by board games (Nicklas et al., 2001; Schlieder et al., 2006) • Conceptual model based on puzzle boards for designing educational games (Melero & Hernández-Leo, in press) • Metaphors to simplify and represent the abstraction of a conceptual model (Lakoff, 1993; Neale & Carroll, 1997) BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 5
LOCATION-BASED GAMES DESIGN A puzzle board metaphor Board Physical zones (indoors or outdoors) Slots Questions designed for the locationbased learning game Pieces Options associated to each question Puzzle Groups of slots Level Each level contains a puzzle Points Correct/Incorrect answers, accessing hints. Bonus Extra points when all questions from a level have been correctly answered Feedback Information associated to ranges of points Hints Information to guide students to find the correct answer BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 6
TEACHERS’ DESIGNS 3 real case studies Using paper-based templates for designing location-based games according to the proposed puzzle board metaphor Discovering L’H Discovering Vic Discovering the MNAC Learning about the heritage of the city of l’Hospitalet Learning about the city of Vic and its art history Learning about different pictures of the museum Extracurricular activity in the school Activity associated to a subject, as part of its formative assessment Activity associated to a subject, as a summativeassessment activity 7 teachers 1 teacher 1 teacher BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 7
TEACHERS’ DESIGNS 3 real case studies Designs contained different amount of levels, questions/level, and hints, and were based on the following design criteria: Discovering L’H Discovering Vic Discovering the MNAC Points Correct Answers 250 points more 1 point more 50 points more Points Incorrect Answers 100 points less 0.3 points less the first attempt, 0.5 point the second one, 1 point the third one. 10 points less Points Hints 100 points less 0.2 points less 50 points less Extra Bonus Proportional to the number of questions 1.5 points more when all the questions correctly answered at the first attempt, 0.75 points otherwise. 50 points more Hints Content Suggestions rather than clues (ask people, look at the bottom of the statue, etc.) Short text about the context related to the question Short text about the context related to the question Levels Information General information about the zone and particular information about the questions Short sentence of the geographical zone Short sentence of the museums room BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 8
QUESTINSITU: THE GAME A gamified mobile application, compliant with a conceptual model of puzzle board games design, that supports assessment in situ. Initial Screen Route Screen Screen showing the map and the location of each question. Here the students can also access to the level’s information screen This screen shows the logo and the name of the instance of the location-based learning game Level’s Information Screen Screen showing the textual information associated to a level Questions’ Screen This screen shows the list of questions for a given location. Questions can be answered as many times as needed. The students can also access to the hints associated to each question http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BTSsXa_e-6M BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 9
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DESIGNS Impact on students Overall Results • 74 students (Discovering l’H), 64 students (Discovering Vic), 36 students (Discovering MNAC) • Students enjoy the proposed approach: better results were obtained from the students playing outdoors (especially from Vic) than those who played in the museum • While the design of positive points and extra bonus were broadly accepted by the students in the diverse cases, the design of the subtracted points provoke more discrepancies among cases • Students avoid accessing to the hints; they prefer to discover the correct answer by other means. Students from l’H found less useful and appropriate the hints than the students from Vic or MNAC BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 10
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS • Puzzle board metaphor as a framework to design location-based learning games • Teachers could follow different design strategies: from points similar to games (“Discovering l’H”, learning activity) to points similar to traditional tests (“Discovering Vic”, formative-assessment activity). • Impact on students: • Engagement. Context can affect students’ engagement (e.g. being controlled by external people (case MNAC) or not, having limited amount of time to solve each level (case MNAC) or not, etc). • Subtracting points. Clear explanation in the rules of the game, meaningful points (e.g. students were familiar with the scoring based on a traditional testbased approach, direct impact in students’ marks) • Hints. Perceived usefulness of hints could directly depend on the designed strategies (suggestions vs. small descriptions about the questions) BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014 11
THANK YOU!! Questions? Suggestions? Doubts? Javier Melero firstname.lastname@example.org Interactive Technologies Group (GTI) http://www.javiermelero.es BIIML14 – Bristol (UK), 6-7 March 2014
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