behavioral Sciences Easy Notes MBBS

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Information about behavioral Sciences Easy Notes MBBS

Published on March 12, 2014

Author: abdulwasay789



Notes provided in a sense to make the final preparation easy and revised before exams. good for MBBS students.

Behavioral Sciences Instructor: Dr Ejaz Sb. Prepared by : Abdul Wasay Amna Inayat Medical College (AIMC) 16-Sep-13

Four Pillars of Medical Ethics  Autonomy – patient has absolute right to opt procedure and treatment for himself  Beneficence – all medical professionals do good to patient under all cicumstances  Non Malefiences – no harm to patient or minimize it to best possible level  Justice – recourses to be delivered on equal need and measures of equity

How to Break a Bad News Bio Psycho Social Model  This model prefers delivery of information to the patient on evidenced based medical facts and tailoring it acc to need of patient  Seating and sitting  Exclusivity  Involvement of significant other  Seating arrangements  Attentive and calm  Listening mode  Availibility  Patient’s perception – what is the idea of patien about specific disease  Invitation – ask patient what amount he want to know about his disease  Knowledge – give hints and tell him with pause and delay, like incident  Empathy – understand the feelings of pateint  Summarize  Plan of Action

Maslow’s Pyramid of Hierarchical Needs Slef actulization Esteem and recognition Love and belonging Safty – avoid harm attaining security ,order and Phys safty Basic physiological needs – biological needs for food, shelter, water, oxygen sex SEL the SaBon

Defense mechanism (3D 3R 2I PSF)**  Denial** – blocking out painful inducing events – knowing smoking hazard, not quitting  Displacement – discharging emotions less dangerous, low grade and shout on paramed  Disassociation – handling emotional conflicts by temp alteration in behavior, Kabootar Bill relation  Fantasy – symbolic satisfaction of wishes through nor rational, Hawai Qilly, Ahmqon ki jannat  Identification - assuming similarity bw oneself and other, Kaali Billi, Nazar  Intellectualization - separation of emotion from ideas, emotions painful. Samjhdari sy  Projection – attributing ones own unacceptable thoughts on others  Rationalization – altering the experience through logical and socially approved explanation  Reaction formation – unacceptable feeling disguised by repression of the real feelings and by reinforcement of opposite feelings  Repression - unconsciously keeping unacceptable feelings away , jealous for friends success  Suppression – consciously keeping away unacceptable thoughts, exams focussing

Eriksson’s 8 Development Model age Stage of Dev Task/ Area of Concepts / Basic Attitude Birth – 18months infancy Trust vs. Mistrust 18 M – 3Y Early Childhood Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3 – 5Y Late childhood Initiative vs. guilt 6 – 12Y School age Industry vs. Inferiority 12 – 20Y adolescence Identity vs. role diffusion 18 – 25Y Young adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation 25 – 65Y Adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation 65Y – Death Old age Integrity vs. Despair

Forgetting  Forgetting is the apparent loss of information already encoded and stored in LTM  Due to lack of attention,  May be information not converted to LTM from STM  FACTORS  Interference – e new info  Retrieval problems – retrieval cues for later recall not found  Motivated forgetting – repression , forgetting the unpleasant incidences and remebering pleasant one  Repression is tendency of people to have difficulty in retrieving anxiety provoking and threatening information.

 Metacognition is thinking about how we think. It refers to knowledge of people have about their own thought processes

Memory  The mental faculty of retaining and recalling past experience  Memory can be explained as our interactions, our actions, perceptions which change us continuously and determine what we are able to perceive, remember, understand later on.  Stages of Memory: Encoding, storage and Retrieval  Types I. Sensory Memory – what we perceive by our five senses. Brief image of all the stimuli II. Short term memory – store as Images and sounds III. Long term memory – sotred on the basis of meaning and importance

Methods to improve Memory  Knowledge of results – feedback or check to see if you are learning  Attention – have setting that enhance your foccus  Recitation and Rehersal – reading a textbook stop studying and remind what you have just read  Organize – into chunks, put similar things in order, remember long list of words by making up sotries  Selection – its like fisherman’s net, keep good big fish. Practice careful selective marking in textbooks. Do not underline everything  Serial position – tendency to forget in middle, long list of name, forgets middle one names. Try to put more effort and attention  Mnemonics – aid or assoisiation to remember things.

 Mnemonics .  Use mental pictures  Make things meaningful  Make info familiar  Form Bizarre. Unusual , or exaggerated mental assosiation  Attach emotions  Overlearning – mean when learnt something then study the material. Best insurance against going blank on a test because of anxiety  Spaced Practice – sup to mass practice, e.g three 20min study session can produce more learning than an hour continuous  Whole Vs Part Learning – better to practice learning whole packages of info rather than small note. Study the largest meaningful amount of information at a time. Text vs Notes. Only notes helpful that you make yourself on the base of SELECTION

 Sleep – after study, sleep reduce the inference. Breaks and free time in a shedule are as impotant as study. Whole night study before exam is not smart  Review – reviewing shortly before exam is helpful. Avoid tendency to memorize new things. The review should be of An Hour rather than a whole night study

Common Psychiatric Disorders  Substance use and abuse, e.g Alcohol  Anxiety disorder  Anorexia nervosa  Adult attentionn deficit disorder  Bipolar disorder  Bullemia nervosa  Depression  General anxiety disorder  Panic disorder  Obsessive compulsive disorder  Schizophrenia  Post traumatic stress disorder  Social phobia  Disassosiative disorder pychosis  Headache

Learning  Learning is a process by which new behavior patterns are acquired  Classical conditioning – by which instinctual or inheren patterns are acquired without reinforcement. E.g salavation , autonomic arousal, piloerection  Uses  Acquisition of fear and anxiety about hospitals – paired response, white coat with injection, an assosiation  Chemotherapy for treating cancer – chemotherapy, food disturbacne after last therapy, reluctant, given sweets, more nutritionally good  Treatment of Phobias – intense feelings, relax, think about, relax and calm, think and overcome  Operant Conditioning – instrumental conditioning in which a behavior that is not a part of persons natural response is learned by consequences for the individual in the form of Reward and Punishment

 Shaping and Modelling – rewarding closer and closer apporximities of the wanted behavior until the correct behavior is achieved e.g.  Modelling is type of observational learning. E.g. learn to be a surgeon after doing it with good surgeon  Conditioning principles I. Positive reinforcement – work for sake of praise – stop scold younger bro for praise II. Negative reinforcement – incr behavior by avoiding and escape – stop bad III. Punishment - behavoir is decr by supression – stop due to mothers scold IV. Extinction – by ignoring, behavior is eliminated by non reinforcement – stop due to mother is ignoring

Emotions  Emotion is a feeling with its distinctive thoughts, psychobiological states, and range of propensities to act  Person behaves arousal during emotions  Types of Emotions  Innate or Primary Emotions – fear, sadness, surprise, digust, anger, anticipation, joy and acceptance  Secondary or Mixed Emotions – primary emotions can be mixed to give rise secondary emotions e.g. jealousy, Remorse  MOTIVATION  The driving and pulling forces which results in persistent behavior directed towards particular goal is called Motivation

Crisis interventionns/ Disaster Management  Types of crisis  Developmental crisis – like pregnancy, adultohood, school  Situational crisis – un natural trauma, disaster, flood  Robert’s 7 stages of Crisis intervention (ARIF APF)  Plan and conduct crisis assessment  Establish report and rapidly establish Relationship  Identify major problems inclue Law straw, or Crisis Precipitatnts  Deal with feelings and emotions – Listening and Validation  Generate and explores Alternatives  Develop and formulate action plan CRISIS RESOLUTION  Establish follow up plan and Agreement

Bio Psycho Social Model  Bio Psycho Social perspective of disease  Based on systemic theory  Presents a triad of life ensures, structural, biochemical and molecular study of a disease  BIO – ensures structural , Biochemical, molecular study of disease  PSYCHO – insight to role of personality, attitudes, attribbutes and other dynamic factor and motivation in the genesis of illness  SOCIAL – emphasizes the impact of family, society, social forces, culture and milieu on the etiology, presentation and management of given illness

Non Pharmacological Interventions in C.P  These interventions augmenting the impacts of physical methods of treatment  Communication skills  Attending and listening – listening and making notes  Active listening – along with, noting voulme, pitch of sound, body language  Verbal techniques - using communication skills  Funneling – questions guiding the conversion from a broader area to a specific area  Paraphrasing - repeating last few word of patient and summarizing  Empathy building – make the patient understand that his/her feelings have been understood ( it is diff from sympathy)  Checking for understanding – summarize the patients statement or ask him to comment  Counseling - an environment that makes sure achieving a greater depth of understanding

Disaster Management  3 phases  Emergency phase  Rehabilitation phase  Recovery phase  Factors to remember during diasaster management  Trauma affect all psycosocial changes rather surgical and medical alone  Most psychosocial consequences are normal  Vulnerable group is childern, women, aged  Provision of early psycosocial supporty prevent long term psychiatric morbidity  Psychosocial and mental health should be integral part of medical treatment  Best recovery is to support each other rather relying on outside and active participation and returning home  Rescue workers should also take care of themselves using BUDDY SYS  Post traumatic conditions becomes longer related to the event  Avoid wave of second Disaster by providing hygeinic water food, debris

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