Beattie decarb course

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Published on March 18, 2014

Author: ColBeattie

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'Decarbonising Our Energy Supply' looks at alternative's to dirty grid electricity to provide us with electricity and thermal energy.

Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J Decarbonising Cities & Regions Decarbonising Our Energy Supply Colin Beattie 13th August 2013 Curtin University Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute

FRAMEWORK … our precincts and neighbourhoods as the building blocks of our cities

Contribution to CO2-e: Emissions by sector; CLIMATE CHANGE

CLIMATE CHANGE

31% energy to the grid 34% energy to the grid 66% energy loss 7% energy loss coal fired power generation.... ENERGY & GREENHOUSE

“THE DENSITY TRADE-OFF: Does High Rise Living Contribute More than Living in Detached Dwellings to Greenhouse Gas Emissions?” Beattie & Newman National Conference Tuesday, 29 November – Friday, 2 December, 2011SOAC EMISSIONS & URBAN FORM

Reference Taper, B. et. al, (2010), Urban Planning, Information Technology and Evidence Based Decision Making for Emission Reductions in our Cities EMISSIONS & URBAN FORM

31% energy to the grid 34% energy to the grid 66% energy loss 7% energy loss coal fired power generation.... ENERGY & GREENHOUSE

31% energy to the grid 34% energy to the grid 66% energy loss 7% energy loss

COGENERATION

Power to 1800 Buildings in Manhattan 50% of steam from cogeneration plants provides heating & cooling Offsets 350MWe of power from grid COGENERATION

PEP Building DANDENONG

Precinct Energy Project (PEP) Includes; •The PEP Energy Centre Building •6MWe Capacity •Reticulation Network Objectives •To significantly reduce GHGe generated by the built environment at a precinct level •To attract development to Dandenong by easier achievement of Green Buildings •To be self funding, providing services at market competitive rates DANDENONG

Precinct Energy Project (PEP) Includes; •The PEP Energy Centre Building •6MWe Capacity •Reticulation Network Objectives •To significantly reduce GHGe generated by the built environment at a precinct level •To attract development to Dandenong by easier achievement of Green Buildings •To be self funding, providing services at market competitive rates DANDENONG Key Facts Stage 1 Stage 2 2MW 4MW Hours of operation 7am to 11pm (Mon to Fri) Annual Operation Approx. 3,800 hrs/pa Annual CO2-e Abatement 22,000 tones Key Facts and Figures

PEP Building

Carine Tafe • 7.92 Ha Total Precinct A Mixed use with commercial, retail, medical, resi and child care Precinct B Retirement village and Residential aged care Precinct C R30/60 Townhouses and apartments Precinct D R80 apartments up to 7 storeys

RESULTS 52% better 64% better 82% better 53% better 8% better -100% -50% 0% 50% 100% Transport Embodied CO2 Energy Water Affordability Reference BetterWorse

1,447 699 - 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model LSP Low Carbon GHGe(t/year) Transport Emissions 0.000 0.033 0.033 0.626 0.736 1.163 1.281 1.405 1.535 1.750 0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 1.400 1.600 1.800 2.000 ADDITIONAL Transit Transit, OPC Trans, 1 PB Trans, 1 PB, CS Trans, 0.75 PB Trans, 0.75 PB, CS Trans, 0.5 PB Trans 0.5 PB, CS Trans 0.5 PB, CS, OPC Losses(-ve)/Savings(+ve) GHGe Savings (t CO2/pp/yr) Embodied GHGe Water GHGe Op. Energy GHGe TRANSPORT

23.9% 25.9% 48.5% 60.6% 27.6% 13.5% 2,720 7,513 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 LSP Low Carbon LSP (R30/60 & R80)… GHGe(totaltonnes) Embodied Emissions Precinct Infrastructure Multi-Apartments Compact Dwellings 1.91 3.05 4.47 7.15 1.59 1.59 7.97 11.80 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Model Reference t(CO2-e)/person Embodied GHG Savings in GHG from Selection of Low-Carbon Building Assemblies 1.02 3.05 2.26 7.15 1.18 1.59 4.46 11.80 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Model Reference Embodied GHG 0.51 3.05 -0.80 7.15 1.18 1.59 0.89 11.80 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Model Reference Embodied GHG Precinct Infrastructure Multi- Apartments Compact Dwellings Additional GHG Reduction from Choosing Low- Carbon/Recycled Materials Additional GHG Reduction including Carbon Sequestered in Timber EMBODIED ENERGY

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

2,223 409 - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model LSP Low Carbon GHGe(t/year)Energy (Gas & Elect.) Emissions 1,324 1,267 1,208 1,149 1,262 1,303 1,143 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 1,250 1,300 1,350 LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model 7-Star 8-Star 9-Star H and C Resi HW Resi Appliances GHGe(t/year) Residential Emissions 899 716 717 892 - 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model NR (Li and BF) H and C All HW All Non-Residential Emissions ENERGY EFFICIENCY

[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] 2,223 1,591 1,464 1,343 1,121 1,106 1,092 943 831 843 791 751 1,084 1,079 1,028 943 785 468 409 - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 LSP (R30/60 & R80)1.5kVAArray4.5kVAArray500sqm PVNR, CoolingNR, H and CNR allNR all, R CNR all, R H and CNR all, R allc/w 250 Sol. Boostc/w 500 Sol. BoostNR, CoolingNR, H and CNR allNR all, R CNR all, R H and CNR all, R allLSP Low Carbon Supply Side Strategies Renewables Tri-generation Options Tri-generation Options EXPORTING ELECTRICITY c/w Solar Boost NON-RESI MIXED USE NON-RESI MIXED USE ENERGY SUPPLY 2,223 409 - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model LSP Low Carbon GHGe(t/year)Energy (Gas & Elect.) Emissions

Building Scale • Fixtures Efficiency • Appliance Efficiency • Rainwater tanks • Greywater Treatment WATER & GREENHOUSE

WATER & GREENHOUSE Community Scale Source: GHD, Cockburn Coast DWMS

Demand Side (efficiency) Strategies Rainwater Tank Options Recycled (Purple Pipe) Water Options 40.97 19.16 - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model LSP Low Carbon ML/year Total Water Consumption Non- Residential Residential 0.000 0.005 0.063 0.083 0.082 0.083 0.082 0.083 -0.042 -0.042 -0.056 -0.142 -0.145 -0.172 -0.172 -0.149 -0.169 -0.25 -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 Losses(-ve)/Savings(+ve) GHGe Savings (t CO2/person/yr) Water GHGe Op. Energy GHGe WATER & GREENHOUSE

LSP (R30/60 & R80) Referen ce Model Irrigation Fixtures Applianc es Fixtures (NR) Irrigation Irr, WC Irr, WC, L Irr, WC, L, HW RW to Irrigation RW to ITL RW to ITL, HW RWSW to Irrigation RWSW to ITL RWSW to ITL, HW RWSW WW to Irr. LSP Low Carbon RWSW WW to ITL, HW Water Savings 0.00 3.23 9.42 13.80 13.80 17.03 19.95 21.21 23.50 15.51 18.12 20.39 15.54 18.26 20.74 21.37 32.18 42.89 GHGe 0.000 0.005 0.063 0.083 0.083 0.082 0.083 0.082 0.083 -0.042 -0.042 -0.056 -0.142 -0.145 -0.172 -0.172 -0.149 -0.169 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 RESIGHGet(Savings(+ve)/Losses(-ve)) WATERSAVINGSkl/(person.yr) Potable Water Savings & GHGe Water Savings GHGe Demand Side (efficiency) Strategies Rainwater Tank Options Recycled (Purple Pipe) Water Options WATER CONSUMPTION 40.97 19.16 - 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model LSP Low Carbon ML/year Total Water Consumption Non- Residential Residential

$0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 LSP Low Carbon LSP (R30/60 & R80) Reference Model Annual Household Expenditure Water usage Energy usage AFFORDABILITY & COST GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE CAPITAL COSTS $/dwelling total $ Env. Saving Units NatHERS Upgrade from 6-star $ 2,966 $ 768,256 350 tonnes CO2/yr Solar hot water $ 579 $ 149,886 Private solar PV $ 3,440 $ 891,000 377 tonnes CO2/yr Rain tanks $ 1,720 $ 445,912 21.2 kilolitres PP/yr Precinct or Neighbourhood Interventions Precinct solar PV $ 1,485 $ 384,526 153 tonnes CO2/yr Cogeneration $ 2,469 $ 639,360 412 tonnes CO2/yr Recycled water scheme $ 566 $ 146,684 32.2 kilolitres PP/yr

Area (ha) Energy/GHG Reductions Transport Cap. Cost Comment Technologies& PracticesAdopted LowCarbon (Trigeneration) Renewables Buildingenergy Efficiency RenewableFuel SUB-TOTAL ReducedPrivate VehicleUse City of Sydney 2600 20% 19% 20% 6% 65% n/a n/a The City of Sydney is based on a number of existing precincts - the results shown are combined. Cockburn Coast 332 55% 0% 55% 35% (GHGe) $5,600/ Dwelling or $44/m2 of fl. area Based on the District Structure Plan developed by Landcorp Stirling City Centre 215 21% 5% 17% 0% 43% 34% (VKT) $76/m2 of fl. area Based on the Structure Plan developed by the Stirling Alliance North Port Quay 245 0 111% 19% 47% 177% 13% (GHGe) $200/m2 of fl. area Hypothetical model pushing boundaries of RE to achieve a zero carbon outcome

“IN CONCLUSION” Looking at energy alone we can only achieve a reduction in emissions of 45% as opposed to 82% IF precinct scale interventions are pursued. • There are significant regulatory barriers • Cost reflective pricing • Is the market ready? 52% better 64% better 82% better 53% better 8% better -100% -50% 0% 50% 100% Transport Embodied CO2 Energy Water Affordability Reference BetterWorse CAPITAL COSTS Building Scale $/dwelling total $ Total $ 8,700 $ 2,250,000 Precinct Scale Total $ 4,500 $ 1,170,000

Curtin University is a trademark of Curtin University of Technology CRICOS Provider Code 00301J 13.08.2013 Thanks to the following for their support; • Curtin University • AHURI • Australian Research Council • Cedar Woods • Horizon Power • North Port Quay Colin Beattie Contact Details: m | +61 423 373993 e | Colbeattie@gmail.com twitter | @ColBeattie www | sustainability.curtin.edu.au Decarbonising Our Energy Supply

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