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Published on February 4, 2008

Author: Obama

Source: authorstream.com

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This presentation is dedicated to----:  This presentation is dedicated to---- All of the wonderful educators across Colorado who are members of ELL / Special Education teams. Slide2:  It was a long time ago. I have almost forgotten my dream. But it was there then, In front of me, Bright as a sun ---- My dream. And then the wall rose, Rose slowly, Slowly, Between me and my dream---- Langston Hughes Walls are built when we operate with different assumptions…:  Walls are built when we operate with different assumptions… This presentation is based on the premise that our assumptions are formed by our language and culture. In order to meet the needs of all students we must understand and appreciate our basic assumptions and those of others. Assumption:  Assumption The act of taking for granted; to suppose something is a fact When assumptions clash---:  “Magic doesn’t work in this new place. Native poetry has lost rhythm and rhyme, Familiar food is labeled a curiosity, And hostile stares replace familial love. To be an immigrant Is to be solitary in the midst of millions.” Deng Ming-Dao, Tao, 1992 When assumptions clash--- Interview with Hmong parents of a child with epilepsy (Recreated by author in The Spirit Catches You):  Interview with Hmong parents of a child with epilepsy (Recreated by author in The Spirit Catches You) What do you call the problem? Qaug dab peg. That means the spirit catches you and you fall down. What do you think has caused the problem? Soul loss. Why do you think it started when it did? Lia’s sister slammed the door and Lia’s soul was frightened out of her body. What are the chief problems the sickness has caused? It has made us sad to see Lia hurt, and it has made us angry at her sister. And when she grows up---:  And when she grows up--- What are the most important results you hope she receives from this treatment? We hope Lia will be healthy, but we are not sure we want her to stop shaking forever because it makes her noble in our culture and when she grows up she might become a shaman. Lia’s Doctors’ Response:  Lia’s Doctors’ Response After many years of treating Lia her doctor’s had no idea about the different assumptions that had been at play throughout. “Mr. And Mrs. Lee thought what?” Your New Life in the United States A handbook for Hmong refugees, published by the Language and Orientation Resource Center, Washington, D.C. :  Your New Life in the United States A handbook for Hmong refugees, published by the Language and Orientation Resource Center, Washington, D.C. To send mail, you must use stamps. The door of the refrigerator must be shut. Never put your hand in the garbage disposal. Do not stand or squat on the toilet seat since it might break. Picking your nose or your ears in public is frowned upon in the United States. In colder areas you must wear shoes, socks, and appropriate outerwear. Otherwise you may become ill. Always ask before picking your neighbor’s flowers, fruit or vegetables. Your life in a Hmong Village: A Handbook for Americans Trying to Understand Hmong Assumptions. Adopted The Spirit Catches You:  Your life in a Hmong Village: A Handbook for Americans Trying to Understand Hmong Assumptions. Adopted The Spirit Catches You Sweep the floor daily to keep the dirt clean and evenly distributed. Use a shaman to respond to the spirits that cause illness. Don’t compliment parents on the appearance of their children, it will make the spirits jealous. Address the oldest/senior member of the family group, no matter what the purpose of the communication. Bury the placenta of a girl baby under the parents’ bed, of a boy baby near the center of the household. “I used to be a real man like any other man, but not now---:  “I used to be a real man like any other man, but not now--- I’ve been trying very hard to learn English and at the same time looking for a job. No matter what kind of job,even to clean people’s toilets; but people don’t even trust you or offer you such work. I’m looking at me that I’m not even worth as much as a dog’s stool. I want to die right here so I won’t see my future.” Interview with a Hmong Refugee, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down Assumptions:  Assumptions What assumptions do you think a Hmong parent might have about: What supplies a child should bring to school? How to help his child in school? What it is like to go to an American school? What is good behavior? Borders and Bridges: Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners:  Borders and Bridges: Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners Lois Adams - Colorado Dept of Education Janet Beatty - Project Act Purpose of Presentation:  Purpose of Presentation To provide information, rationale and strategies to create bridges and span borders in order to meet the needs of English Language Learners. So, Why Do We Need this?:  So, Why Do We Need this? Knowledge? Sensitivity? New Knowledge and skills? Because---- Legal and Policy Reasons :  Because---- Legal and Policy Reasons Title VI of Civil Rights Act of 1964 May 25th Memo Title II of ADA Section 504 of Rehab Act of 1973 Lau v. Nichols Castaneda v. Pickard Summary of legal requirements:  Summary of legal requirements Schools must provide programs that include: Identification Language proficiency assessment Instructional placement (content and English Language Acquisition) Performance assessments Exit criteria Adequate yearly progress Program evaluation to determine effectiveness Appropriate referral and access to special education services. In other words, a sink or swim approach ~ “just like it was for my grandparents” is NOT acceptable!!!:  In other words, a sink or swim approach ~ “just like it was for my grandparents” is NOT acceptable!!! Prohibits Discrimination:  Prohibits Discrimination “Each State that receives assistance under this part. . .shall provide for the collection and examination of data to determine if significant disproportionality based on race is occurring in the state in respect to” identification and placement of children. from IDEA, 1997 Special Education Law IDEA - 97 {614(b)(3)(A)}:  IDEA - 97 {614(b)(3)(A)} Tests and other evaluation materials used to assess a child must be: Selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; provided and administered in the child’s native language or other mode of communication, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so. Slide21:  How does Colorado measure up? Slide22:  Number of Administrative Units Disproportionately Identifying Minorities for Special Education Over Identifying Under Identifying Total Minority 2 0 Black 3 2 American Indian 0 4 Asian 3 1 Hispanic 2 2 Note: Disproportional identification is determined by a statistical significance level of p<.05, statistically controlling for the percentage of each minority in the AU’s student population and the rate of special education identification relative to the state average. Disproportionality :  Disproportionality What are the ethnic ratios in my district? How do special education ratios measure up to the general population? Are we over or under represented in any area? If so, why might that be? Why might we be under-identifying Asian students? Because--- Demographic Reasons:  Because--- Demographic Reasons 5 year growth in # of students who speak languages other than English 114 languages spoken in Colorado 80% speak Spanish Colorado’s School population:  Colorado’s School population From 1980 to 2000 Hispanic population has doubled: 81,567 to 159,000 Asian population has tripled: 8,799 to 20,932 Population growth not focused in one area:  Population growth not focused in one area “It’s actually increasing in areas that haven’t been traditionally Latin. Jefferson County, Douglas County and the mountain counties. . . I think the numbers are exploding all through the state.” Rufina Hernandez, Executive Director , Latin American Research and Service Agency. Because of--- Pragmatic Reasons:  Because of--- Pragmatic Reasons Currently 1 of every 5 school-aged children in America comes from a home where a language other that English is spoken 1 of every 3 teachers has an English Language Learner in his/her classroom. In the Average Classroom of 30 Students:  In the Average Classroom of 30 Students 10 students are ethnic or racial minorities 6 speak a language other than English 4 speak Spanish 1 speaks an Asian language 1 speaks 1 of more that 100 other languages 6 live in poverty Immigrant Student Study by Judy Smith-Davis, Alliance Project:  Immigrant Student Study by Judy Smith-Davis, Alliance Project Children who immigrate from other countries pose interesting challenges Wide variations in quality of education in countries of origin Some who have never attended school Psychological and physical trauma from violence and war Difficulties in socialization Difficult to involve parents And to Make Things Even More Interesting -------:  And to Make Things Even More Interesting ------- Educators lack knowledge of cultural /language factors. There is a shortage of educators who are fluent in languages other than English. Typical reading instruction doesn’t reflect understanding of ESL needs. Because ---- Political Reasons:  Because ---- Political Reasons CLOSING THE GAP! English Language Learners and CSAP:  English Language Learners and CSAP Source: CDE Assessment Unit, 11/98 – 1998 CSAP District Report Cards:  District Report Cards “Analysis shows strong ties between the school ratings and student poverty and race: The state’s lowest schools are overwhelmingly poor and minority.” “Unsatisfactory” schools are about 20% Black, 68% Hispanic, 1 % Asian and 9% White. “Excellent” schools are about 1% Black, 4% Hispanic, 3% Asian, and 90% White. (Rocky Mountain News) And because…Human Reasons:  And because…Human Reasons “Communication does not begin by being understood but by understanding others” Stephen Brown “We cannot truly understand the walls immigrants and minorities face. But we can attend to some of the voices, some of the stories.” Of Borders and Dreams Administrator:  Administrator “We want our school to be rated “superior!” We work hard to help all children learn to read. But some need so much more time and resources. . . It’s a daunting task!” Teacher:  Teacher “I have 28 kids in my class. Everyone of them is special! But trying to teach a student who doesn’t understand English is my biggest challenge!” Special Education Teacher:  Special Education Teacher “I know I have to use SPED assessments that are not biased - they have to be language and culture neutral. I don’t have any idea how to do that!” Speech Language Pathologist :  Speech Language Pathologist “I need time to work with others, especially our team and his teacher and family, to meet the needs of this child who is learning English as a second language after just coming here from Mexico” Parent:  Parent “When I went to enroll my children in school, they wanted so much information. Now, my child has a disability and they are asking even more questions. Why do they need all that information? I don’t trust the government in my country and it makes me really nervous to give people here so much information.” Another Parent :  Another Parent “ I am teaching my children to be quiet in school, to be respectful of the teacher. I get them ready by teaching them this and to not get in trouble. But they tell me if they don’t talk the teacher thinks they are dumb.” No me escriba - Don’t write to me about my child!:  No me escriba - Don’t write to me about my child! “Notes from school about my child are impossible, in English or Spanish. Only Ricardo, our 6-year-old son, in first grade, can read either language.” From Of Borders and Dreams Another Parent :  Another Parent “As I see my child having difficulties in school, I know it is because of me. . . I can’t help any of our children with homework, I can’t help them with school.” What if….:  What if…. “I’ve thought of asking you for a while now. Maybe I could learn some English and to read a little. Maybe then I could help them more. I might not be able to do it, but I just wonder. . .” From Of Borders and Dreams Student:  Student “In my country, if there is a problem we go to the teacher to tell her. I did that and the other kids really got on my case. I am scared to go to school.” Student:  Student “I was taught to listen in school, not to talk. Here we have to speak out to get attention. That’s hard to do when you don’t understand or speak English well. I think the kids and teachers think I’m dumb.” And another student:  And another student “I never saw a locker before. We have to keep our stuff in there and so I’m always late for class because I can’t remember how to use it.” Overall Picture:  Overall Picture Educators feeling frustrated Professionals working in isolation Parents feeling uninformed and isolated Increasing inappropriate referrals and pressure to place students in special education Confusion about assessment for SPED eligibility Numerous OCR “visits” Students caught in the middle Slide49:  Opening the Pandora’s Box Slide51:  Community District/BOCES Building Classroom Student Systems’ Thinking Systems Response: Colorado’s 8-Step Process:  Systems Response: Colorado’s 8-Step Process Parent checklist English proficiency checklist Student placement Concern about learning/ behavior Classroom interventions SPED referral SPED ID process Specialized instruction & support Community Responses:  Community Responses Collaborate across the community To identify resources Train interpreters Hire and use cultural mediators Establish supports for new comers Three concrete suggestions.:  Three concrete suggestions. 1. Get rid of the word Compliance. It’s a lousy term. It implies moral hegemony. You don’t want a command from a general, you want a colloquy. A second suggestion ---:  A second suggestion --- Instead of looking for a model of coercion, look at a model of mediation. Go find a member of the community who can help you negotiate. Remember that a stance of mediation requires compromise on both sides. Decide what’s critical and be willing to compromise on everything else. And finally--:  And finally-- You need to understand that as powerful an influence as the culture of the student and her family is, the culture of American education is equally powerful. If you can’t see that your own culture has its own set of interests, emotions, and biases, how can you expect to deal successfully with someone else’s culture? All three recommendations are adapted from The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, p. 261 An Ounce of Prevention is worth a pound of cure! Suggestions to avoid unnecessary SPED referrals:  An Ounce of Prevention is worth a pound of cure! Suggestions to avoid unnecessary SPED referrals Share successful instructional strategies Use a cultural mediator Support use of native language Learn about the cultural /linguistic Background of the child and family Observe in the classroom, lunchroom, playground Support parents as language models Enlist parental support Work as a team Attitudes that ensure success:  Attitudes that ensure success Language and culture enrich our lives Language and culture form life views/assumptions. We respect and honor language, culture, and different assumptions We are lifelong learners We are knowledgeable advocates. We collaborate to make decisions and provide services. We focus on the whole child- academic success, emotional security, culture, and language. District Strategies:  District Strategies Select Personnel Hire folks who have knowledge of second language acquisition and culture (cultural mediators) to work with families and educators. Review your ELL policies and procedures to ensure they are effective and legal Provide training Knowledge of second language acquisition Legal requirements Effective instructional strategies Include ALL ELL students in the accountability process. School Strategies:  School Strategies Establish effective child study teams Include those knowledgeable of second language acquisition and culture Provide research based instructional strategies Develop coordinated and collaborative services and supports Invite and encourage families to participate in class and building activities Develop buddy systems for new and/or reluctant students Encourage families to support other families Classroom Strategies From Tidunoff et al., 1991 :  Classroom Strategies From Tidunoff et al., 1991 Facilitate comprehension use appropriate wait time believe students are capable of learning provide structured time to use English give immediate feedback adjust own English for comprehension Capitalize on the Commonalities of SPED and ESL Instructional Strategies:  Capitalize on the Commonalities of SPED and ESL Instructional Strategies Use of visual and verbal prompts Repetition Modeling Use of language that is comprehensible to the learner Activities with high functional value Use of environmental cues From Elba Rohena-Diaz, Ed.D. Cultural Mediators/Brokers/Representatives:  Cultural Mediators/Brokers/Representatives “Someone who merely converts words into English, however accurately is of no help whatsoever.” “I don’t call my staff interpreters, I call them cultural brokers. They teach me. When I don’t know what to do, I ask them. Go find yourself a cultural broker!” The Spirit Catches you and You Fall Down Use students’ native language.:  Use students’ native language. Allow students to use their native language to respond to questions asked in English. Use students’ native languages for concept development/clarification. Use students’ native language in order to develop competence in English. Structure activities to promote students’ active use of language:  Structure activities to promote students’ active use of language Allow students to interact with others for class activities, tasks. Don’t correct ungrammatical utterances of students. Assign students to cooperate on instructional tasks. Ensure that student talk dominates the lesson. Frequently Observed Miscellaneous Factors…:  Frequently Observed Miscellaneous Factors… Focus on English language development as integral part of lesson. Emphasize meaning rather than grammatical structure of students’ responses. Make use of visuals or manipulatives to teach content. Show sensitivity to students’ language and culture. Special Education Strategies:  Special Education Strategies Include ELL staff in SPED process Monitor SPED ethnic ratios compared to district ratios Provide information to parents in the language they understand Document language skills at every opportunity Be cautious in accepting referrals without documentation of pre referral interventions. Ensure that assessment for eligibility is not discriminatory because of language or culture. Key Decisions Points:  Key Decisions Points Prereferral/referral meeting Is this referral appropriate? Have there been effective interventions with sufficient intensity for an appropriate length of time? 2. Assessment What are the language skills and culture of this child? What do we need to know? Which tools and strategies are appropriate? Eligibility Can diversity issues, language factors be ruled out as a Primary cause of the student’s school difficulties? Does the student meet eligibility criteria? Is the student in need of special ed. services? Key Components of a Quality Assessment :  Key Components of a Quality Assessment Comprehensive information is gathered regarding the family’s cultural and linguistic background. Interpreters and cultural mediators are essential members of the assessment team. Standardized instruments are supplemented by non-standardized measures, and observations in multiple settings. Results of the assessment are interpreted within the context of linguistic and cultural variables Differentiating a language difference from a language disorder: Two critical questions must be asked:  Differentiating a language difference from a language disorder: Two critical questions must be asked Is the child able to be an effective, fluent and appropriate communicator using authentic communication behaviors in typical contexts? If not, is this due to factors intrinsic to the child, extrinsic (I.e. environmental) factors, or a combination? To answer the 2 critical questions::  To answer the 2 critical questions: Use specific questions to guide discussions See 9 questions from Project ACT Reflect on environmental influences and language development See Roseberry-McKibbin handout How do we measure up?:  How do we measure up? Do SPED and ELL folks know & share strategies with classroom teachers? Do we use trained interpreters / CMs? Do we support use of the child’s native language Are we sensitive to students culture and language? Do we observe children in their natural environments? Do we support parents to be language models? Do we involve parents? Do we conduct quality assessments? We we work as a team? Strategies:  Strategies What strategies have you used in your district/BOCES? Which ones might you try? few people will leave the familiarity of what is for the sake of what could be.:  few people will leave the familiarity of what is for the sake of what could be. It is not enough to have a vision and a value. Without a plausible bridge, a strategy to get there, Personal Strategies: Use Available Resources :  Personal Strategies: Use Available Resources JOIN the ELL / SPED LIST SERVE Here’s How: Send A Command To LYRIS@WEB.CDE.STATE.CO.US Send the Following Message: Subscribe CLD (Plus Your Name) To Contribute Something to the List Serve, Use: CLD@WEB.CDE.STATE.CO.US Use available information:  Use available information Special Education for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students: Meeting the Challenges, Realizing the Opportunities. Colorado Department of Education, January 1999 Available in hard copy or at www.cde.state.co.us Read a book:  Read a book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures, Anne Fadiman,Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, New York, 1997 Con Respecto: Bridging the Distance Between Culturally Diverse Families and Schools, Guadalupe Valdes, Teachers college Press, New York, 1996 Of Borders and Dreams: A Mexican-American Experience of Urban Education, Chris Liska Carger, Teachers College Press, 1996 Make a new friend:  Make a new friend Community members from various cultures District ELL professionals International students at local colleges Folks who have participated in the CDE ELL/SPED team training CDE staff and outside consultants SPED contact - Lois Adams at Adams_l@cde.state.co.us ELA Unit contact- Flo Lenhart at Lenhart_f@cde.state.co.us ELL /SPED training team Take a peer from another district out for lunch:  Take a peer from another district out for lunch To learn about An enthusiastic team that’s made a difference - Cherry Creek On going ELL staff development - Centennial BOCES A persuasive team that got their cultural mediator - Grand Junction A team wrote a Sliver grant for MONEY to train - East Central BOCES How a director can support a team - Montrose Developing a collaborative district plan - North Glenn What is one personal strategy you can use on Monday?:  What is one personal strategy you can use on Monday? Borders, bridges, dreams--- :  Borders, bridges, dreams--- Hay tantísimas fronteras Que dividen a la gente, Pero por cada frontera Existe también un puente Gina Valdes, 1982 There are so many borders That divide people, But for each border There also exists a bridge. Translated by Chris Carger, 1994 May the work we do together:  May the work we do together Smooth the borders, Build the bridges, Create the dreams - And give us the courage to do so! Smooth the borders, Build the bridges, Create the dreams:  Smooth the borders, Build the bridges, Create the dreams Post script:  Post script Chaos theory explains the fact that complex and unpredictable results can and will occur in systems that are sensitive to their initial conditions. A common example of this is known as the Butterfly Effect. The Butterfly Effect states that:  The Butterfly Effect states that In theory the flapping of a butterfly’s wings in China could actually cause weather patterns to change in Denver, thousands of miles away. In other words, it is possible that a very small occurrence can produce unpredictable and sometimes major results by triggering a series of increasingly significant events. Slide86:  The moral of this story? Keep on Flapping!!!

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