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Published on October 12, 2007

Author: Gulkund

Source: authorstream.com

Crocodylian forelimb musculature and its relevance to Archosauria:  Crocodylian forelimb musculature and its relevance to Archosauria Mason B. Meers * Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Introduction :  Introduction In the study they used comparative descriptions of the forelimb They looked specifically at the attachment sites, innervation, and anatomical functions The muscular anatomy of the crocodylian forelimb is highly conservative among the different species However there are interspecific differences Hypothesis:  Hypothesis There where several hypothesis examined in this study That anatomical variation correlates with locomotion behavior Anatomical variation may reflect the phylogeny of Crocodilian Phylogenetically constrained soft-tissue characters of the forelimb distinguish members of Crocodilian Muscles :  Muscles Extrinsic muscles M. trapezius M. pectoralis M.costocoracoideus pars superficialis Pectoral Girdle musclature M. teres major M. deltoideus clavicularis Branchial musculature M. tricepts longus caudalis M. bicepts branchii Antebrachial musculature M.extensor carpi ulnares longus Manus M.flexor digitorum brevis superficialis digiti III M. flexor digitorum profundus digiti IV Methods and Material:  Methods and Material Most of the specimens that were used in this study came from private captive breeding facilities All of the specimens died of natural causes Standard dissection techniques where used to determine muscle origin, insertion, relationships, and innervations. Examples of specimens used:  Examples of specimens used A.mississippiens G.gangeticus C.Siamensis C.Actus Results :  Results Extrinsic musculature - M. trapezus inserts fleshy in C. acutus and may extend to the suprascapular cartilage - M. pectoralis in C. acutus the origin extends caudally to the first three gastrula - m. costocoracoideus – musculature conserved in specimens Interspecific differences:  Interspecific differences Pectoral girdle musculature - M.tres major in A. mississippiens this muscle intermingles with M. latissimus dorsi prior to formation of its tendon - M. deltoideus a distil slip of this muscle is found only in A, mississippiens Interspecific differences:  Interspecific differences Branchial musculature - M. tricepts longus in G. gangeticus the belly is prononced - M. bicepts branchii In G. gangeticus the origin is in a different place in a shaft of the coracoid Continued:  Continued Antebrachial M. extensor carpi ulnairs – in C. actus the tendon fans out to attach to the extensor fascia overlying digit one Continued:  Continued Manus M.flexor digitform in A. Mississippians the muscle gave off a lateral tendinous slip that attached to both sides of metacarpal III M. Flexor digitorum profundus seems to be irregularly split in two specimens A. Mississippians and C. actus Discussion:  Discussion The hypothesis that anatomical variation correlates with locomotors behavior is supported because of the anatomical and inferred functional differences between aquatic and amphibious The hypothesis that anatomical variation may reflect the phylogeny is also supported Discussion continued:  Discussion continued this was demonstrated by the interspecific difference in the musculature of the different species The hypothesis that phylogenetically constrained soft tissue of the forelimb distinguish members of crocodile was on partially supported interspecific variations seem to relate more toward function than to phylogeny

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