Published on February 19, 2014
BATTLEFIELD ES PTO ENRICHMENT CLASSES – 2005 PORTUGUESE AND BRAZILIAN CULTURE by Celina C Falck-Cook
Portuguese is the 8th most spoken language in the world, the rank being: 1) Chinese, 1 billion, 2) English, 500 million, 3) Hindi, 497 million, 4) Spanish, 392 million, 5) Russian, 277, 6) Arabic, 246 million, 7) Bengali, 211 million, 8) Portuguese, 191 million, 170 million in Brazil; 9) Malasian, 157, 10) French, 129. In the US there are more than 500,000 Portuguese native speakers. (according to the Texas Tech University)
It is the official language of eight countries – Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, GuineaBissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome e Principe, East Timor and, in this way, it is present all over the planet. (The information on how many people speak the languages mentioned was found in the site of ALFAL – Linguistics and Phylology Latin American Association).
Portuguese was born in Galiza, in the kingdom of Leon – which today is a Spanish province.
Galiza (Galicia) was the first, the oldest independent kingdom of Europe. The Old Kingdom of Galicia was created by the Germanic people of the suave that in 409 came to the Roman province of Galleacia because the Romans gave that land to them in exchange for stopping to attack the Empire. José J. Presedo A galician musician Galicia has always conserved its own language costumes and differentiated culture. A natural mountain chain isolated Galiza and also Portugal from Spain. The SpanishPortugal border is the oldest of Europe. Galicia is the only one of the seven Celtic countries : Eire, Galiza, Breizh, Kernow, Cymru, Mannin and Alba that has well conserved Celtic houses 2000 years old.
In 711 d.C., 7 thousand Arabs crossed the strait of Gibraltar ('djabal altariq') and invaded Spain, which was at this time a Visigoth kingdom. They conquered the whole peninsula, except for a region in the Asturian mountains, where Pelagio, a goth prince, hid and started to fight for the recovery of the land (Reconquista). His successors continued to fight until in the 11th century the kingdoms of Asturias, Oviedo, Leon, Navarra, Aragon and Castela were formed (Spanish) as well as the Portucale county (or shire), and Barcelona. The county was a part of the Leon, a Spanish kingdom. In 1128 D Afonso Henriques declared the independence of Portucale (now Portugal), and became a king after all moorish (mouros) were expelled from the country.
The five white points in the five shields in the center of the flag refer to a legend concerning the first King of Portugal, King Afonso Henriques or Afonso I. Before the Battle of Ourique (July 1139), he was praying for the protection of the Portuguese people when a vision of Jesus on the cross appeared to him. King Afonso won the battle and in gratitude incorporated Christ’s five wounds into his flag. The five shields represent the five Moorish kings defeated in the Battle of Ourique. The castles are a symbol of the Portuguese victories under King Afonso III command over their enemies, relating to the mourish castles defeated by Portugal in 1249.
The Portuguese Navigations – In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias reache the Cape of Torments – CABO DAS TORMENTAS( a name that was changed to Cape of Good Hope (CABO DA BOA ESPERANÇA)), in 1492, Columbus came to America, looking for a way to reach the East; Vasco da Gama leaves Portugal and reaches Calicut in India in 1498, and in 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral reaches Brazil; In 1519, the Portuguese-born Fernão de Magalhães (Magellan), at the service of the kings of Spain, sails around the world. Nicolau Coelho, another navigator, described “strange lands” to the west, and the Portuguese king D. Manuel I decided to check this out. Vasco da Gama had said he had seen birds flying to the west when he went around Africa, which meant there was land there somewhere.
Countries and Communities in the world that speak portuguese or a loCal language based on it todaY Goa, Damão e Korlai
Photo of a fort in Macau, China, built by the Portuguese
Cape Verde Flag and Map – West of Senegal(Africa) Bandeira e Mapa das Ilhas de Cabo Verde – Oeste do Senegal (África)
Map of Africa, WITH OTHER FOUR Portuguese-speaking countries (Cape Verde, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau and SAO TOME E PRINCIPE) Mapa da África, COM outros 4 (quatro) países falantes do português ) (Cabo Verde, Moçambique, Angola, Guiné-Bissau, SÃO TOMÉ E PRÍNCIPE GuineaBissau, map and flag (Guiné Bissau, mapa e bandeira) Sao Tome e Principe, map and flag (São Tomé e Príncipe, mapa e bandeira) Mozambique’s flag (Bandeira de Moçambique) Angola’s flag (Bandeira de Angola) Os cantores africanos, Ildo Lobo, de Cabo Verde, Dulce das Neves da guinéBissau, Juka, de São Tomé e Principe, e Sambala, da GuinéBissau
Portugal today Portugal hoje Ó MAR SALGADO, quanto do seu sal São lágrimas de Portugal Por te cruzarmos, quantas mães choraram, Quantos filhos em vão rezaram! Quantas noivas ficaram por casar Para que fosses nosso, ó mar. Valeu a pena? Tudo vale a pena se a alma não é pequena. Quem quer passar além do Bojador Tem que passar além da dor Deus ao mar o perigo e o abismo deu, Mas nele é que espelhou o céu." Fernando Pessoa ( o maior dos poetas portugueses) séc. XX
BRAZIL, WHICH IS THE BIGGEST PORTUGUESE-SPEAKING COUNTRY IN THE WORLD - 170 million in the year 2000. E FINALMENTE: O BRASIL, QUE É O MAIOR PAÍS FALANTE DO PORTUGUÊS DO MUNDO - 170 milhões no ano 2000
The Brazilian Flag A Bandeira do Brasil The Brazilian Flag has a large yellow-shaped diamond on a green background. The color green stands for the lush fields and forests of Brazil. The color yellow represents its wealth in gold. In the center of the yellow diamond there is a blue sphere, that symbolizes Brazil's blue sky with 27 stars, which stand for it's capital and 26 states. In the middle of the sphere there is a white banner with a legend: "Ordem e Progresso", which translates into "Order and Progress".
Brazilian History and Geography Brazil is a huge country, the 9th largest on earth, and extends over an area of more than eight and a half million square kilometres (only slightly smaller than the USA). There are 183,000,000 inhabitants in the country according to the 2005 estimates. It has borders with all of the South American countries except Chile and Ecuador. It was discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, and adopted the Portuguese language. It got independent from Portugal in 1822 and was a Kingdom with their own kings until 1889 (Pedro I and Pedro II). Rio was the capital of this Kingdom and was an Imperial city for a long time. The country was called Brazil due to the pau-brasil, a reddish wood (ember color – cor de brasa) used to dye at the time and sold by the Portuguese for they could not find gold at their colony right away.
The Brazilian capital is now Brasilia, which is both the heart of the country and the continent. It was inaugurated in 1960, but in the 19th century some people already thought about building it. The Palácio do Planalto, the seat of the Brazilian Government.The sculpture pays homage to the workers that built the town, the “Candangos” that came from the Northeast, its author is the sculptor Bruno Giorgi.
The modern city of Brasilia, the Congress, the Ministry buildings
The Amazon Basin, its legends, its mysteries The Amazon Basin occupies the northern half of the country. The 6000 kilometre-long Amazon River (3728 miles, the world’s largest in water volume, the longest is the Nile) gives definition to this densely forested and sparsely inhabited region. Although a lot of companies have been exploring the mines and wood and soil of the rainforest (mining, logging and agricultural operations), it still contains 30% of the world’s forest resources.
A curious feature of the water in the area where the Amazon is formed by the waters of the Negro and Solimões rivers When the Solimões River meets the Negro River to form the Amazon River, both rivers run parallel to each other for kilometers until the waters mix. Half of the river is brown, the other half is black at this point.
Indians that still live in the rainforest Ianomami tribe village in the Amazon
An Amazonian Legend – the Vitoria Regia flower – it was named after Queen Victoria by a British scientist who was amazed by its size and beauty and so decided to pay homage to the queen giving her name to that incredible plant
The Indian legend of the Victoria Regia An Indian chief once told the children of his tribe this story about the Vitoria Regia flower: There was among us a beautiful and young Indian called Naiá. When she found out the moon was a handsome and powerful warrior, Naiá fell in love with it. This was the reason why she refused to marry the strongest and bravest men in our tribe. She even ran after the moon with her arms outstretched so she could reach it. But the moon ignored her. One day, she saw the reflex of the moon in a lake and jumped into it and drowned. Then the moon, that did not want turn Naiá into a star in the sky, decided to turn her into a star of the waters. It transformed the Indian girl’s body in a huge and beautiful flower. Every night this flower opens its huge petals so that the moon shines on its rosy corolla Havia entre nós uma bela e jovem índia chamada Naiá. Quando ela descobriu que a lua era um guerreiro poderoso e belo, Naiá se apaixonou por ele. Por isso se recusava a casar-se com os homens mais fortes e valentes da tribo. Até corria atrás da lua com os braços estendidos para poder alcançá-la. Mas a lua a ignorava. Um dia, ela viu o reflexo da lua em um lago e pulou dentro d’água, e se afogou. Então a lua, que não queria transformar Naiá em estrela do céu, resolveu transformá-la em uma estrela das águas. Transformou o corpo da jovem índia em uma imensa e bela flor. Toda noite essa flor abre suas enormes pétalas para a lua banhar de luar a sua corola rosada.
Now, we are going to listen to a Brazilian song about how Earth’s name should be Water that also mentions the Amazon rivers! It is a country style song by an urban composer from São Paulo, Guilherme Arantes. Enjoy and sing along!
Uma apresentação feita numa escola americana sobre o que é o Brasil e o português, sua história e os países que falam português hoje em dia
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