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Information about BasicTrainingPresent

Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Vittoria


Slide2:  How to Get Started Watersheds & Pollution Sources Habitat Assessment Down to the Water! <Lunch> Chemical Monitoring Biological Monitoring Data Analysis Data Reporting Evaluations & Questions Plan for the Day Slide3: Slide4: Goals:  Provide education and training on watersheds and the relationship between land use & water quality. Increase public involvement in water quality issues. Promote responsible stewardship of water resources. Provide water quality information to citizens and government officials working to protect Indiana’s rivers and streams. Goals Training Workshops Monitoring Equipment – Appendix A Safety:  Training Workshops Monitoring Equipment – Appendix A Safety Slide7: Slide9:  POINT SOURCE 25% direct discharge from industry, sewage treatment plants, etc. easier to identify due to “end of pipe” NONPOINT SOURCE 75% general runoff of water contaminated by poor land use, homes, streets, air, etc. difficult to identify Slide10: TYPES OF POLLUTION:  TYPES OF POLLUTION ORGANIC decomposition of once-living material human & animal waste, algae INORGANIC suspended & dissolved solids silt, salt, minerals TOXIC heavy metals and lethal organic compounds iron, mercury, PCBs THERMAL water heated by urban runoff or industry streets, nuclear power BIOLOGICAL introduction of non-native species (zebra mussels) SEDIMENT is the #1 source of water pollution to IN waterways!:  SEDIMENT is the #1 source of water pollution to IN waterways! Watershed Inventory:  Watershed Inventory Research Maps and Aerial Photos Reports & Surveys Field Inventory – What are the Land Uses? In-stream Conditions – Color, Odor & Appearance Slide14: Designing a Water Study:  Designing a Water Study  Where is your watershed? What are the goals of your water study? What is your plan? Why Are You Monitoring?:  Why Are You Monitoring? Is it safe for swimming? Determine stream health – baseline data Identify pollution sources Supplement official water data - IDEM Have fun while serving your community! What are Your Goals? Environmental, Community, Educational Water Study Design: Planning:  Choose a Sample Site: 200 ft stream segment Define boundaries Consider accessibility, safety, and private property issues Choose a site, develop a sampling schedule, and have a quality assurance plan based upon your goals & what YOU want to learn! Water Study Design: Planning A Few Final Details…:  A Few Final Details… Riverwatch State & National Network Role of Hoosier Riverwatch Role of Volunteer Monitor Preparation & Practice Take a breath – relax & smile!  What is water quality monitoring?:  What is water quality monitoring? Assessment of the PHYSICAL CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL elements that define a stream and its watershed. Slide20: Slide21: Citizens Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index:  Citizens Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index The following all contribute to habitat and combine to give a final score: Substrate Fish Cover Stream shape and human alterations Riparian area and local land use Depth/Velocity Riffles/Runs Slide23: Slide24: Slide25: Slide26: Macroinvertebrate Sampling Riffle Habitat:  Macroinvertebrate Sampling Riffle Habitat Use Kick-seine net Rub rocks into bucket or net Kick for 3 minutes Take 3 samples from different locations - different parts of one riffle or riffles of various depths and flow Combine samples Wash net into bucket or pick “bugs” off net Macroinvertebrate Sampling Muddy-Bottom Habitat:  Use D-net Total of 20 jabs in a combination of habitats 4 preferred habitats Vegetated streambanks Submerged aquatic vegetation beds Snags and logs Sand, silt, gravel Rinse net in bucket and combine samples Macroinvertebrate Sampling Muddy-Bottom Habitat Slide29: Chemical Assessment :  dissolved oxygen E. coli and general coliforms pH biochemical oxygen demand 5-day water temperature change phosphates nitrates and nitrites turbidity/transparency Chemical Assessment Slide31:  PRACTICE! Wear gloves and eye protection. Sample in the main streamflow. Rinse tubes with sample water. Dispose of waste properly. Wash hands when done. Keep Material Safety Data Sheets and First Aid kit on hand. Hints for Chemical Testing Critical Thinking Questions:  Critical Thinking Questions Water Temperature Dissolved Oxygen BOD 5-day pH Phosphate Nitrate Turbidity E.coli Slide34: Interrelationships Precision & Accuracy:  Precision & Accuracy Increased Precision Increased Accuracy Bull’s Eye Represents the Actual Value Tests are less sensitive Increments are larger Riverwatch Methods Water Temperature:  Water Temperature Temperature change between sampling site and 1 mile upstream Caused by thermal pollution (clear-cuts, cooling pond discharge) or by springs and/or rainwater Can oxygen levels, photosynthesis and decay, and impact aquatic organisms May be increased by turbidity (caused by soil erosion, urban runoff, or algae); and affects dissolved oxygen Slide37: Slide38: Dissolved Oxygen (DO):  Dissolved Oxygen (DO) DO = Oxygen gas dissolved in the water; Primary indicator of water quality DO gets into water from air & photosynthesis Fish need it to breathe! Higher DO Higher diversity of aquatic organisms We consider % Saturation, since: DO as temperature Slide42:  Amount of Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) your water sample would need to be 100% Saturated at the given temperature.* *at sea level Slide43:  __DO mg/L__ (your sample) Max DO mg/L (from chart determined by water temp) Example at 19º C: 8.0 x 100% = 84.6% 9.45 Calculate % Saturation: X 100% Slide44: Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5:  Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 Amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during breakdown of organic matter DO(Original sample) – DO(Day 5) = BOD5 Wastes produced by breakdown of aquatic vegetation, animals, feedlot runoff, etc. High BOD5 = potential for oxygen depletion in the water High BOD5 generally correlated with high nutrient levels pH:  pH Measure of how acidic or basic the water is From 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very basic) Influenced by geology, rain, and discharge from point sources Affects toxicity of other chemicals; many aquatic organisms are very pH-sensitive Changes with temperature, in response to high levels of photosynthesis; related to alkalinity Slide49: Phosphates:  Phosphates Nutrient essential to plant growth, naturally present in low concentrations Enters water via runoff; present in fertilizers, attached to soil particles, and in organic waste Can lead to eutrophication = nutrient overload and the system’s response (lots of plant growth) High P often results in low DO Slide51: Slide52:  Gulf of Mexico’s “dead zone” Nitrates:  Nitrates Nutrients essential to plant growth Sewage is main source to rivers and streams Excessive amounts contribute to eutrophication High nitrate levels often correspond to high total phosphates and low DO Turbidity:  Turbidity The relative clarity of water. Caused by suspended solids in water (from soil erosion, algae) Can photosynthesis, temperature, DO, smother habitat, and clog gills May be associated with low DO and high total phosphorus Slide59: E. Coli:  E. Coli E.coli is a particular species of Fecal Coliform bacteria - Found in the feces of warm-blooded animals Enters water via Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO’s), poor septic tanks, & agricultural animals. Not necessarily pathogenic themselves; signal the presence of dangerous pathogens/fecal contamination Often found in conjunction with high nutrient levels Coliscan Easygel:  Blue and purple colonies are E.coli Pink colonies are coliforms Teal colonies are non-coliforms Best if incubated at 35oC for 24 hours Coliscan Easygel Units for E.coli are # colonies per 100 mL (of water):  Units for E.coli are # colonies per 100 mL (of water) Use the number of colonies found in your sample volume to estimate the number that would be found in 100 mL of water ? Slide63:  Interrelationships Slide65:  1.0 72.84 72.84 200 0.06 98 37 10.78 6.29 DO: Q-Value Graph & Table:  DO: Q-Value Graph & Table Slide67:  0.72 55.77 77.46 Slide68:  BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT Benthic Macroinvertebrates: Why do we monitor them?:  Benthic Macroinvertebrates: Why do we monitor them? Chemistry – just a snapshot in time Macroinvertebrates: Not very mobile Spend extended period in the water Have different levels of tolerance to pollution Macroinvertebrates provide idea of water quality over extended period of time Slide70:  Aquatic Food Web Slide71: What if You Find Mussels?:  What if You Find Mussels? Most endangered group of animals in IN Avoid mussel beds or live shells if visible Replace exactly where & how found It is ILLEGAL to possess live or dead mussel shells (1-800-TIP-IDNR) Native mussels vs. zebra mussels (exotic) Invasive Aquatic Plants – App C:  Invasive Aquatic Plants – App C HYDRILLA Exotic Typically has 5 leaves Roots have tubers on ends ELODEA Native submersed aquatic plant Typically has 2 or 3 leaves Crayfish Research Project:  Crayfish Research Project Rusty crayfish is exotic in most of Indiana Collect all crayfish in plastic bags – then freeze Document location, date, and collectors’ names Appendix C-2 for more information Slide75: Slide76: Net Spinning Caddisfly:  Net Spinning Caddisfly Are more tolerant to pollution than other caddisflies Have hair-like gills all along their abdomen Slide78: Slide79: Slide80: Slide81:  Virginia Multimetric Index Disclaimer: The rating scale used in the final multimetric index was developed for Virginia streams and is not valid for use in determining overall stream health in Indiana. Slide82: Data Analysis and Reporting:  Data Analysis and Reporting Analysis: What do the data mean? Do the results make sense? Why or why not? Are there any patterns? (Graphing may help.) Action: Protecting Our Watersheds Action Guide & Appendix C - “What You Can Do to Prevent Pollution” Reporting: First, check for errors, then Submit to Riverwatch via online database Slide84: Slide85: Database Entry Tips:  Database Entry Tips Keep hard copies of your data sheets You get your Volunteer ID & Site ID#s when you register online You only need to register once Contact us if you need to make changes to your registration information or the data you submitted – DO NOT RESUBMIT! Slide87:  Online Database Slide88: Slide89: Register New User Slide90:  Register New User - Organization Slide91:  Register New Site Slide92:  Enter Data – Sampling Specifics Appendices:  Appendices Monitoring Equipment Adult Macroinvertebrates Key Aquatic Invasive Species What You Can Do to Prevent Pollution Ranges, Averages, and Q-values Glossary Other Resources References Extra Data Sheets Slide99:  “A man who is willing to undertake the discipline and difficulty of mending his own ways is worth more to the conservation movement than a hundred who are insisting merely that the government and the industries mend their ways.” ~ Wendell Berry “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” MARGARET MEADE:  “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” MARGARET MEADE

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