BasicErgonomics

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Information about BasicErgonomics
Education

Published on March 5, 2008

Author: Virginia

Source: authorstream.com

Functional Ergonomics:  Functional Ergonomics Definition of Ergonomics:  Definition of Ergonomics The fundamental definition of ergonomics is given as "the study of work in relation to the physiological and psychological capabilities of people." The word "Ergonomics" comes from the two Greek words: Ergos which means "work" Nomos which means "laws" Thus, ergonomics is quite literally "the laws of work." The 4 Ergo Questions????:  The 4 Ergo Questions???? Where Does it Hurt? What Makes it Hurt? How Do You Find it? How Do You Fix it? Three Basic Steps:  Three Basic Steps Hazard Identification Risk Assessment Control Hazard Identification:  Hazard Identification Surveillance Passive – Is a statistical review of Frequency of injuries Severity of injuries Types of injuries Active – is a process of soliciting response of job/task, usually by working input Symptom survey Body map All for the purpose of determining if injuries are of an ergonomic cause. Assessment:  Assessment Is the physical measurement or data collection of the hazard. What are you measuring? Need to know risk factors. Risk Factors:  Risk Factors Posture – what is neutral posture? Hazard any deviation from normal Greater deviation equates to greater risk Risk Factor :  Risk Factor Repetition: No universal definition Generally, a task is repetitive if: Task cycle time (e.g. time to complete one task) is less than 30 seconds, OR, in the case of longer cycle times, ~ 50% of cycle requires same/similar shoulder/elbow/forearm/wrist movements Task is repeated at a frequency that promotes greater than 3 shoulder movements per minute and 10 elbow/forearm/wrist movements per minute, and this is repeated continuously for greater than one hour per shift Hazard – The more movements performed will increase the likelihood of injury Risk Factor:  Risk Factor Force – any push, pull, lift, lower, carry in order to move, displace or hold an object Hazard – when force exceeds acceptable limits Acceptable limits on weight change depending on: height, distance, frequency, duration, coupling, size of object Other Risk Factors:  Other Risk Factors Duration Studies being conducted to determine acceptable holding times for various positions/task Vibration Even low levels of vibration sufficient to change the integrity of soft tissue Environmental Cold & heat – change in energy consumption/demand Criteria Checklist:  Criteria Checklist Once have objective data, comparison is needed to standard/criteria. Posture – REBA, RULA Repetition – RULA, Kilbom (1994) Force – NIOSH, Liberty Mutual Tables Duration – Rodger Muscle Fatigue http://www.hsc.usf.edu/~tbernard Control:  Control Eliminate the hazard rather than control Prioritize from greatest to least When possible allow for adjustability Engineer vs. Administrative Controls Evaluate:  Evaluate Repeated Surveillance Passive Active Ergo-Committee Encourages response from workers Worker buy-in Wider range of ideas/solutions Return on Investment:  Return on Investment Ergonomic Projects that Result in ROI Are effective in reducing hazard exposures Engineering controls Administrative controls Work practices Are efficient in reducing hazard exposures Start with low cost/high impact Gain grass roots involvement

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